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#31

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Fri Jan 20, 2012 9:01 am
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts

汉字:中国人背叛上帝之后搭建的“巴别塔”
Chinese Language as a Result of Betrayal of God


第一哲学

(2010-01-28 20:53:32)转载▼标签: 汉字汉语语言上帝孔子信仰契约法律巴别塔甲骨文杂谈

汉字:中国人背叛上帝之后搭建的“巴别塔”

——只有改造汉字,才能改造中国(一)

1、翻开历史,走进历史的最深处,你会发现,汉字决非像看起来的那样“美丽”。

汉字,是中国的“巴别塔”,是导致中国几千年历史停滞不前的顽固堡垒。

汉字代表了中国人由于失去“上帝”信仰而产生的狂妄。狂妄导致自暴自弃、自贱自虐和自私自利,最后是粗鄙的愚昧无知和庸俗的功利主义。

中国人因为失去信仰而引起的痛苦挣扎,记载于甲骨文。而中国人的集体堕落,则开始于秦汉时代的文字统一。自此,中国人万劫不复。

尽管互联网时代带来的不同文化、语言现象,已经撼动了中国的这座汉字“巴别塔”,然而,这座汉字“巴别塔”已经深深地植入到了中国人的遗传基因之中,哪怕他已经改变国籍,这个基因却始终如影相随。

汉字,作为一种哑巴语言的符号系统,早该废弃不用(不是毁坏之,而是——)成为历史遗迹,仅供世人研究、深思。然而,中国人却将它视为难以割舍的宝贝。这正是中华民族总是灾难不断的一个根本渊源。

这是一种极其苦闷的灾难!除了汉语之外,整个世界似乎都可以对话。对话,就是一种建立盟约或契约的行为。假如没有对话,任何人都会疯狂。疯狂,则制造灾难。然而,不是中国人不想对话,而是被汉字所控制的语言大大降低了中国人的对话能力。

大哲海德格尔曾经说过:“语言是存在的家园。……我们欧洲人和东方人(按:多指中国人)也许居于完全不同的家中。……因此,两家的对话仍然近于不可能。”

2、不同语言的对话,经历了一个“否定之否定”的过程。汉字所代表的汉语,则没有这样的完整过程。

《圣经·旧约·创世记》第11章记载:大洪水劫后,上帝以彩虹与地上的人们定下约定,不再用大洪水毁灭大地。此后,天下人都讲一样的语言,都有一样的口音。诺亚的子孙越来越多,遍布地面,于是向东迁移。在示拿地(古巴比伦附近),他们遇见一片平原,定居下来。

有一天,有人提出一个问题:我们怎么知道不会再有挪亚时代的洪水将我们淹死,就像淹死我们祖先那样?“这有彩虹为证啊。”有人回答道,“当我们看到彩虹,就会想起上帝的诺言,说他永远不会再用洪水毁灭世界。”“但是没有理由要把我们的将来以及我们的子孙的前途寄托在彩虹上呀?”另一个人争辩说,“我们应该做点什么,以免洪水再发生。”于是,他们彼此商量说:“来吧,我们要做砖,把砖烧透了。”他们拿砖当石头,又拿石漆当灰泥。他们又说:“来吧,我们要建造一座城,和一座塔,塔顶通天,为要传扬我们的名,免得我们分散在全地上。”由于大家语言相通,同心协力,建成的巴比伦城繁华而美丽,高塔直插云霄,似乎要与天公一比高低。

没想到此举惊动了上帝!上帝发觉自己的誓言受到了怀疑,上帝不允许人类怀疑自己的誓言,就像我们不喜欢别人怀疑自己那样,上帝决定惩罚这些忘记约定的人们,就像惩罚偷吃了禁果的亚当和夏娃一样。他看到人们这样齐心协力,统一强大,心想:如果人类真的修成宏伟的通天塔,那以后还有什么事干不成呢?一定得想办法阻止他们。于是他悄悄地离开天国来到人间,改变并区别开了人类的语言,使他们因为语言不通而分散在各处,那座塔于是半途而废了。

这个故事,一定是真实的!它包含了太多的历史意味(容许本博今后逐渐解释)!

《圣经》写出了欧亚大陆在语言上的真实图景:巴别塔半途而废之后,曾经人类共同使用的原始语言开始分化,以致今日的状况。

然而,中国人的先祖——华夏民族的炎帝、黄帝,还是背叛了“上帝”,另起炉灶,继续营造了一座新的“巴别塔”。这就是今天的汉字的来源。然而,这座“巴别塔”并不通往天堂,而是直接指向“天”。

今天,汉字是世界上使用人数最多的文字。它几乎是当今世界惟一“硕果仅存”的象形文字,而有别于中国以外的世界其他地方,后者都是拼音文字。

由于这个缘故,中国人仍然在遭罪、受难。汉字,差不多是惟一的一种不能随意说出或者书写的文字,它仍然战战兢兢地匍匐在世俗权力的脚下,而无法成为直接向“上帝”叙述的语言。而其他的拼音文字,则可以直面“上帝”。

写道这里,我顺便说一说本人所理解的“上帝”的含义:“上帝”是一种精神立法,“上帝”其实就是人间的契约。为什么有人说宗教改革为西方带来了“法治”?一个简单的理解是:“上帝”面前人人平等,也就是“契约即法”、“法律面前人人平等”。对于“上帝”的这个理解,将有助于我们看清楚:汉字所代表的语言是一种背叛“上帝”的语言;而且,汉字容易被那些背叛“上帝”的人们所利用。

因此,本博需要说明的问题很多很多:汉字是如何创造出来的?中国的先人们究竟犯了什么错误?中国的“龙”信仰与汉字是什么关系?古代中国为什么闭关锁国?汉字究竟是一种怎样性质的语言密码?孔儒为什么将人区分为“君子”和“小人”?中国人为什么总是无法摆脱专制主义?中国为什么不能出现西方那样的法治?等等等等。而这一切问题的答案,都在汉字之中。

3、中国传统文化中,最大的学问不是什么无中生有、毫无用处、只会害人的“国学”,而是甲骨文学。在甲骨文中,有汉字所代表的文化的最为根本的密码。

然而,破译这部密码的工作,中国人却做得很少很少。作为每天都在说着“汉话”的中国人,却并不知道自己正在说着一种怎样的“鸟语”。

因为在这座汉字“巴别塔”的塔底,隐藏了太多太多的历史秘密,而且这些秘密即使今天仍然暴露在我们眼前,我们却只能视而不见。就像甲骨文一样,出土的只有很少的一部分,而且就是这么很少的一部分,我们也只能解读出其中的少部分。

由于汉字的某些特征,中国人并不理解自己的文化。中国文化就像柏拉图那个著名的“洞穴”隐喻。中国人都在汉字的“洞穴”之内,而无法看到真实的世界——语言。

在柏拉图的“洞穴”之内,每个人都被捆绑着,面向洞穴里面的墙壁,而无法看到外面的世界,只能看到自己被火光照射下来的模模糊糊的影子。汉字就是这个影子。而之所以形成这个影子,不过是因为人们被捆绑住了,而无法走进真实的世界之中。

所以,汉字之中有“炎黄子孙”们无数痛苦的记忆,其中很多是难以描述、不愿回想的痛苦。也许,汉字所代表的中国文化一开始就错了。本文刚刚开始写作,我这里事先简单交代一下:中国自从夏商周开始,就不是一个鼓励的民族——所谓“闭关锁国”,不过是朝廷政治的结果。夏商周以前的中国,与欧亚大陆的交流非常频繁。那个时候的“中国人”曾经也想信奉“上帝”,不过,自从夏商周开始,某些“中国人”就企图背弃“上帝”了。到了周代,“中国人”几乎完全失去了关于“上帝”的记忆。自从周代开始,“中国人”再无信仰的可能。于是,“法治”的文化因子失落,“中国人”一盘散沙。而孔儒雪上加霜,用“圣人”的“礼”代替曾经在民间还起作用的不成文“法”。

这个论题实在很大很大!!!而要理解它,则需要各种各样的背景知识。所以,本文从一些现存的现象说起,慢慢靠近真实的历史,那个幽暗的深处,可能是不堪描绘的卑污。然而,只有靠近它,我们才能真切地发现:当下的中国人仍然生活在愚昧无知和野蛮暴虐之中。

4、(以下文字是昨天写的,语气、风格像争架,所以,味道突然差了许多。)

不久前,律师叶满天的一篇文章《16个歧视女性的汉字应改写》,无意中泄露了天机:中国社会的种种问题,都与汉字以及汉字所代表的思维习惯和生活方式紧密相关!汉字看起来很美,但是,它所代表的思维习惯和生活方式却很低级、很丑陋,也很原始、很野蛮。而且,汉字的缺点很难改造,就像中国传统文化一样顽固。

所有中国人都害怕将汉字看成一种落后的文字,害怕自己成为“汉奸”、“卖国贼”。就连看出了一些端倪的律师叶满天,也不得不在自己的文章一开始就交代:“ 首先,我要向大家表个态:中文,是我们的母语,是最美丽的语言。”然而,作者还是遭到了口诛笔伐的围剿。

王立群老先生就专门撰文指出:“不论汉字具有何种今天看来不适宜的色彩,都不能以此为理由而取消它们,甚至于再造出一些汉字来代替它们。这样做只能引起汉字使用的混乱,因为,此风一开,汉字要改的岂止是这十几个?远远不止。”

王老的意思其实就是“祖宗之法不可变”。他认为,“今人并未因为这些历史形成的汉字而惹出什么麻烦,倡导废除某些字、再造某些字,是拿数千年的中华文明开玩笑,荒唐至极!”而实际上,坚持几千年的“美丽”错误,才是真正的“荒唐至极”!

王老在文章中最后愤愤然地总结道:“保持汉字的相对稳定是绝大多数中国人的愿望,一个人要改变整个民族的用字无疑是天方夜谭!”而实际上,改造或创造文字的活动,在人类文明史上从来就不曾停息过。从象形文字到古埃及最初的字母文字,再到腓尼基字母,再到拉丁字母,再到欧洲各种各样的字母文字,就是一个逐渐借用、改造、更新、再造的文字演变过程。我们的近邻日、韩所用的文字,既有借用,也有再造。这些历史实例,难道还不能证明文字也是可以年轻化的吗?至于今天,每一个语言系统都在随着开放程度的深入,而发生着越来越多的变化。

汉字本身实际上也在不断演变。从结绳记事到原始图像,经陶文、甲骨文、金文、史籀文(石鼓文)四大阶段的演变后,到秦始皇统一文字,再到汉代的“隶变”,古代中国汉字的官方形制终于成型。同时,文化“定式”亦随之确立。在现代中国,繁体字又经历了一些变化。然而,万变不离其宗,汉字的造型可以改变,然而,汉字背后的原始性的思维习惯和生活方式却是雷打不动。以致今日,中国人仍然抱残守缺、心智不全,只能沿袭传统,却不能开出新文明;可怜的是,我们还美其名曰:中国传统文化将要拯救世界。

这是中国人的最大悲哀!诚然,汉字中国文化的重要基因和密码,它是老祖宗留下来的“宝贵财富”,然而,这笔“财富”如果弄不好,就很可能成为有毒的遗传信息。实际上,汉字所代表的冥顽不化的“汉思维”,已经给中国人带来过无数祸害,而且至今仍然在阻碍着中国人的心智发育。

问题的根源在哪里?这是一个巨大的、至今无人完全破解的历史、文化秘密!!!不过,有心者将会发现,越来越多的证据显示:汉字是“中国人”曾经有意逃避“西方”(即中国之外的欧亚大陆),并且背弃“上帝”的结果(“上帝”曾经是人类共同的信仰!),所以,本人认为:汉字一开始就是一个严重的历史、文化错误!

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#32

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Tue Feb 14, 2012 3:18 pm
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts

纯转--也谈汉语语法存在的一些缺点

(2012-02-14 23:08:42)

原文地址:纯转--也谈汉语语法存在的一些缺点作者:金雀花玫瑰
《也谈汉语语法存在的一些缺点》

吕观雄

看了《语文建设通讯》第29期孔宪中先生的《语法与文句的格局》及30期《从人工智能看汉语汉字的缺点》,很有启发。这之前,孔先生还先后在本刊发表过《意音文字及其他》、《汉字改革的两条基本路线》和《综合文字》。这些文章都表达了一个中心思想:汉语还存在语法上的缺点,文字改革不能只就语音情况而改革,还应带动语构(包括语法)上的改革。这是极富远见的。

在过去很长一段时间,汉语汉字被人说得一无是处,似乎不拉丁化中国就要灭亡。这个时候有人站出来公正地评价汉字,肯定汉语汉字的优点,认为汉字改革不能走拉丁化的道路,这是值得称道的。但如果强调得过分,认为汉语汉字没有缺点,不需要改革了,则是走了另一个极端。孔宪中先生这时站出来,从更新更高的角度来指出汉语汉字存在的缺点,希望用更科学的方法来研究汉字改革问题。对此我深有同感。

汉语汉字存在许多基本的优点,不这样它就不会生存几千年,直到今天仍为十亿人所使用。但汉语汉字也是发展的,从甲骨文到现在使用的汉字,从文章的无标点符号到现在的有标点符号,从文言文到现在的白话文,都可以看到汉语汉字发展的轨迹。文字随社会的发展而发展,不发展就变会被淘汰。汉语汉字今后也还会发展的,这是因为汉语汉字还存在不少缺点,不改革就难以适应社会的需要。

下面我也谈谈汉语汉字存在的一些缺点,进而提出一些汉字改革的设想,希望能起到抛砖引玉的作用。

缺点一:汉字文章词与词之间不留空格,使阅读速度降低,并容易引起歧义。

汉字最早产生时,一个汉字就是一个词,因此不存在分词连写问题。随着汉语汉字的发展,现在多字词已占越来越大的比重,特别是科技新词,大多是多音节词,如“多不饱和脂肪酸”、“电子计算机”、“磷酸脂酶”等。阅读实践表明,人在阅读时,输入的信息应该是以词或词组为最小单位来进行处理的。例如“爱因斯坦是个杰出的科学家”这句话,假如我们阅读时是看到一个字,头脑便处理一个字的话,那么看到第一个字“爱”字时,头脑便会反映出“爱情”、“恩爱”之类的概念,事实上并不是这样。有阅读经验的人在阅读时往往都是几个字几个字的跳读,把单字组成词或词组来理解。由于汉字文章不分词连写,这种跳读往往要往复几次,才能理解,大大影响阅读速度。如有一次我看到一本名叫《当代中医药名人录》的书,初一看,竟把“中医药名”划为词组,读不通后,才知道是“中医药”方面的“名人录”,又如,“本书由黄修已教授供稿,知识系统、准确、适于自学”这个句子我初看时也把“知识系统”划为一个词组,读不通后才明白原来“知识”是主语,“系统、准确”是谓语。又如86年12月15日《市场报》上有个报道,题为“捞刀河刀剪今胜昔”,初看时以为是“捞刀、河刀、剪 今胜昔”。但总觉得“捞刀”、“河刀”、不像词,看了文章的内容后才明白“捞刀河”是个地名,这地方的刀剪今胜昔。

这种来回跳读和根据前后文来边阅读边分词的方法,是很费时间的。值得一提的是,中国人在阅读时临时分词和分析能力与个人的阅历和知识经验、语法知识有很大关系,因此一般成年人阅读与生活密切相关的小说、报章并不存在多大障碍,而阅读政治、法律及科技文章就有一定的困难。如这个句子:

“由于饱和脂肪酸可以使血清胆固醇含量增高而多不饱和脂肪酸可降低血清胆固醇及甘油三酯,减少血小板粘附性;所以要选择含多不饱和脂肪酸较多,而含饱和脂肪酸与胆固醇较少的食品。”

这句话我费了很大劲才把“多不饱和脂肪酸”这个词分出来。假如汉字分词连写,这种理解上的困难就会少得多,阅读速度相信也会快得多。

任职于香港理工大学心理系的李永贤博士在一篇名为《语言心理学与语文教学》的文章中有一段论述很能说明问题,现摘录如下:

“第二是眼球活动方式问题。一般人以为阅读或看什么东西时,视线是像探照灯那样扫过去的;其实不然,大部份时间是断续、跳动式的。研究阅读,有一种特别的照相机,可以把眼球活动情况拍摄下来。英文句子上的曲线就显示阅读停顿,眼球活动从一点跳到另一点,时间可以量度到。所谓跳,方向是固定的,就像射出枪膛的子弹,不会转方向。跳多大步和停顿多久,决定了阅读速度的快慢。快的一次停少于1/5秒。碰到不明白的地方还会回过头来。关于中国人阅读,有一个发现,那便是停顿比外国人密,据研究,前者为后者的两倍。中文是方块字,占位置较少。同样的信息,英文的拼写比汉字所占的位置给为1.3-1.4比1。你可以试试把《明报》的中英文社论比较一下,英文确实较长。可是停顿两倍多,毕竟难于解释。”(注1)

为什么中国人阅读中文停顿密度高呢?李永贤先生认为是“中国人自幼养成逐字思索及发音的习惯,故跳动不快。”“中文是方块字,词与词间无空位,遂使停顿时间增长。假如在印刷上标词——词与词间留空位——和教学上多作检词训练,对提高阅读速度相信有帮助“(注2)

汉字不分词连写的缺点已为越来越多的有识之士所认识。安子介先生就指出:“现在中文句子的缺点是:单字与词组之间,词组与词组之间,或与另一单字之间,完全没有‘词间空白’,读者要凭自己过去的知识经验去划出‘词’来。”(注3)可以认为,汉字分词连写问题是个重要的研究课题,这个问题的解决,也许是今后文字改革的一个突破口。

缺点二:汉语无宾格引起的歧义。

汉语无性数格的烦琐变化,确有其简洁方便的优点。但事物总有两个方面,优点之中往往隐藏着缺点,缺点之一是会产生歧义。请看下列例句:
例A1:A不给B照相。

这句子有两个相反的意思:

1、A不让B给自己照相。
2、A不给B这个人照相。

例A2:以体力、速度见长的运动员,随着年龄的增长和伤病缠身,他的长处就会变成短处,其运动生涯也较短,而对手也容易对付。(注4)
“对手也容易对付”这句话有两个相反的意思:

1、我方容易被对手对付。
2、对手容易被我方对付。

例A3:阿Q在未庄是修庵的尼姑,任谁都可以欺负的。(注5)
这句话也有两个意思:

1、 阿Q是一个谁都可以欺负的尼姑。
2、 修庵的尼姑们都可以欺负阿Q。

例A4:稻谷没淋着大雨。(注6)

汉语的正常语序一般为主、动、宾,例A4按正常语序应为:“大雨没淋着稻谷”。可按例A4写我们一样能理解,是稻谷没被大雨淋着,而不是相反,为什么?我想最主要一点是因为常识使我们知道稻谷是不会去淋着大雨,而只会被大雨淋着。靠常识和知识经验才能理解的语法应该说不是很完善的语法。又如:

例A5:秦始皇作为一个历史人物,该如何评价我们先不管,但他实行“书同文”确有不可磨灭的功绩。(注7)

这句话如果让一个不懂中国历史文化的外国人看,也许会看成是“秦始皇来评价我们”呢。而原来的意思是我们评价秦始皇。

缺点三:汉字的“的”字兼职太多,存在阅读和理解上的问题。

由商务印书馆1990年重排的《新华字典》对“的”字的释义有以下几条:
的,de
1、(1)在词或语后表明形容词性:伟大的、光荣的、正确的中国共产党。英勇无敌的中国人民解放军。(2)同“地”。
2、代替所指的人或物:买菜的。吃的。穿的。
3、 表示所属的关系的词,有时也写作“底”:我的书。社会的性质。
4、 助词,用在句末,表示肯定的语气,常跟“是”相应:他是刚从北京来的,di4(箭靶的中心):中的。有的放矢。[目的]要达到的目标、境地:中国共产党的最终目的是实现共产主义。的,di2真实,实在:的当。的确如此。

我认为,“的”至少还有以下几种语法功能:

(1) 表示假设的语气,常和话“话”连写成“的话”。例如:有时间的话,我一定来。
(2) 在某种场合代替“得”。例:“`````先使小喽罗或在东,或在西,引诱的秦明人困马乏,策立不定。”(水浒传)。又例:“周恩来来李说:你来的正好,毛主席正急于了解朝鲜战场的情况”。(注8)
( 3) 引出从句结构,在句子中可作以下成份:

1、 定语从句(或表语从句)
例B1:国务院 11月 10日发出关于打破地区封锁进一步搞活商品流通的 通知。
例B2:把对外开放和自力更生对立起来的 观点是不对的。(注9)
例B3:请认准空军石家庄医院仪器厂的 “华宝”牌电子鼻炎治疗仪。(注10)

2、 主语从句
例C1:许多同志的学习马克思列宁主义 似乎不是为了革命实践的需要。(注11)
例C2:我的决不邀请投稿者相见,其实也并不完全因为谦虚。(注12)

3、 状语从句
例D1:还要抓好科技兴农,抓好农副产品收购,以及夺取明年农业丰收的 一切准备工作等。(注13)
例D2:在民族问题上既要反对民族歧视、民族压迫,又要反对民族分裂,努力建立一种相互谅解、相互尊重、相互平等、相互帮助的新型的团结合作的社会主义民族关系。(注14)

4、 还有一些“的”字从句在句中的作用不明:
例E1:这种产品开发上的“时间差“、慢半拍”,恰恰是陷自行车王国于竞争的被动之地的 重要原因。(注15)
例E2:他指出,广西各族人民和干部队伍的亲密,是维护稳定的琡书面、搞好经济建设的可靠保证。(注16)

“的字语句”或“的字词语”存在的一些问题:

以上所举的有关“的”字的例子,我们不妨称之为汉语特有的“的字语句”或“的字词语”。现在我们来讨论“的字语句”存在的一些问题。

(甲)语法关系错综复杂。请看以下三个例句:

例F1:平素不认识的可怜的朋友,或是写信来,或是亲自上我这里来的,很多很多,我因为想报答两位也是我素不认识而对于我却有十二分的同情过的朋友的厚恩起见,总尽我的力量帮助他们。(注17)

例F2:安全专家把如此高的幸存率一致归功于汉纳斯基在最后几秒内所发挥的临危不惧的无比高超的娴熟的飞行技巧。

例F3:由某种物质组成的单位质量的物体的热容量,叫做这种物质的比热。

从以上三个例子可以看出,当一个句子里连续出现两个以上的“的”字詞语时,它们之间的语法关系并不总是如例F1那样由前一个“的字詞语”修饰、限定紧靠其后的一个詞语的,有时是几个“的字詞语”共同修饰、限定最后一个詞语,如例F2;有时是两个或两个以上的“的字詞语”共同修饰一个詞语组成一个完整的“的字詞语”后再修饰后一个詞语,如例F3。
“的字詞语”的这种错综复杂的语法关系在语法上很难解释清楚,事实上我们在阅读时,往往要凭知识经验和一些语法知识才能把它们之间的修饰关系弄明白。如例F3,首先要具备一定的物理知识我们才知道“由某种物质组成的”决不能修饰“单位质量”或“热容量”,而只能是修饰“物体”,如此才能看懂这个句子。
这种凭知识经验才能弄明白的语法,是一种不完善的语法。以下几个例子一般人可能不易读懂,更不用说划分出语法关系了。

例G1:首数的性质:
I、正整数或者正的带小数的对数的首数是等于真数的整数部分的位数减去1的一个整数,即首数是一个正数或零;
II、正的纯小数的对数首数是一个负数,它的绝对值等于真数里第一个有效数字前面的零的个数(包括整数个位的一个零)。(注18)

例G2:余弦定理:
三角形任何一边的平方等于其它两边平方的和减去这两边与他们夹角的余弦的积的两倍。(注19)
例G3:PAL制色度信号的频谱中的已调色差信号FU与FV的主谱线不是佔据相同的位置,而是刚好错开半个行频,即它们的间距为1/2FH。(注20)

说实话,至今我还搞不清楚例G1的语法关系。
例G2如按定理字面理解,可得两个不同公式。设ABC分别为三角形的三条边,则:
公式1  a2=b2+c2-2bc cosA
公式2  a2=2(b2+c2-bc cosA)
(注:因为在电脑上无法打出平方,以上公式中在字母后的2均表示为平方)
公式1是对的,公式2是错的,但按字面解,公式2亦没错。问题的关键出在汉语的“的字词语”有歧义性。以下几个例句都有歧义性:

例H1:生命的路是进步的,总是沿着无限的精神三角形的斜面向上走,什么都阻止它不得。(注21)
“无限的”可能是修饰“精神三角形”,也可能是修饰“斜面”。

例H2:拍摄这种人在高空徒走飞行的镜头,虽非我国首创,但在国外也并不多见。(注22)
“这种”可能是限定“镜头”,也可能是限定“人”。

例H3:关于批判继承问题的讨论。
可以理解为:关于批判 继承问题的讨论。
也可以理解为:关于批判继承问题的 讨论。

(乙)“的字詞语”的另两个缺点是:主语不突出

由于主语前面往往受到一大串的“的字詞语”限定,主语被放在句中不突出的位置,不利于人在速阅时捕捉中心詞而影响阅读速度。请看下面例子,带横线的是主语。

例I1:PAL制逐行倒相克服色调畸变的 原理可用彩色矢量图2-49来说明。

(丙)谓语动词和宾语中心詞之间,数量詞和被修饰的中心詞之间的距离相隔太远,也会影响快速阅读。

学过英文的人都知道,英文用来修饰或限定主语和中心詞的手法非常丰富,因为它有’s, of, who, whom, that, which, to be等表示詞与词之间或句与句之间关系的詞或词组。汉语则缺乏这些关连词,因而往往是修饰或限定詞词组一长串排在主语或谓语中心詞前面。由于表达方式有限,人们要用汉语来表达一句概念准确的定义、法律条文或学术思想确不容易,而这种句子让人读起来也很难速读。请看下面这个句子:

“如果说在传统小学有深厚积累的音韵学上有瑞典汉学家高本汉因材料的明智和方法的‘西化’而使汉语音韵研究别开生面,那么在此之前晚清人士马建忠在用西方眼光看来几乎是毫无建树的汉语语法研究领域移植来印欧语言的整座‘葛朗玛’大厦,则是语言学文化断层的第一座丰碑,从此奠定了整个汉语语法发展的基本格局。”(注23)

幸好“高本汉”、“马建忠”我们都熟悉,因此看这个句子还不算费劲,假如让一般人看我想不会这么容易,更不用说划出语法关系了。这种层层叠套的句子在哲学、法律、政治经济等著作中都不少见。

本文例举了汉语语法上的一些缺点,并非是说汉语语法一无是处,事实上汉语语法无性、数、格的变化,简洁而明确,在许多方面是西方拼音文字所无法比拟的,但确也存在一些值得注意的问题。希望大家在进行文字改革研究的同时,也进行语法的改革。这不是数典忘祖,“的字语句”的不少句法可能是翻译者在翻译外文时,融合了中国传统语言习惯,造就了这种不中不洋的格式,毛病不少。与其这样,还不如直接引进英文的关连詞或自创关连詞来得方便和科学化。

要保留一种语言文字的最好办法是改革之,完善之。试设想如果中国现在还在用甲骨文,语法上还用文言,或文章不用标点符号,能行吗?

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#33

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Sat Mar 17, 2012 5:40 pm
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts



陈凯博客www.kaichenblog.blogspot.com

The Evil of Confucianism and the Harmful Effect of Chinese Language on Human Perception of Reality
孔儒说教的邪恶与中文语言对人认知真实的危害


(Addressed to People/parents of students of Hacienda La Puente Unified School District)
向哈崗学区的学生、父母与居民进一言


By Kai Chen 陈凯 (Written 3/31/11, Reprint 9/7/2011)

www.kaichenblog.blogspot.com

Since the downfall of the Soviet Union and the world-wide recognition that communism is an evil ideology, realizing that communism has exhausted its usefulness for its tyrannical/criminal/atrocious rule over the Chinese population, the Chinese communist regime has increasingly been aggressive in promoting a native-born despotism based on an ancient totalitarian theory/ideology – Confucianism. As a result, “Confucian Socialism” (儒粹) is born and being spread around the world through hundreds “Confucius Institutes and Confucius Classrooms”, in the name of promoting the learning of the Chinese language.

I now briefly list the evils of Confucianism and the harmful effects of Chinese character-based pictorial/syllabic language on human perception of reality and essence of human existence:

Confucianism is a political ideology and indoctrinated behavior code for stability of despotic/tyrannical regimes in China throughout its history.

1. Confucianism is intrinsically anti-freedom and anti-American.

In American Declaration of Independence, human freedom is promoted through the moral principle that all men are created equal with God-given rights of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. But Confucianism is promoting the exact opposite – an immoral and amoral human existence and behavior code based on inequality from one’s birth by his/her family background, by his/her race, by his/her gender, by his/her trade and profession, by his/her power in a social/cultural structure according to political power/government. According to Confucianism, emperor/power elite is at the top of the pyramid, women is below men, the young is below the old, the physical labor is below the mental labor, the powerless is below the powerful, etc.. Men with political power, not God, dictate the status of everyone else. Thus Confucianism is for absolute power by the government to control its people, exact opposite from American concept of “government of the people, by the people and for the people”.

2. Confucianism is a political doctrine, never a philosophy, for the dictators/despots against human freedom.

Confucianism instills that men with power in society – the emperor and power elite, decide what is best for the empire, without any attempt to establish any mechanism to control such power elite and the power they wield above the population. Therefore, the Chinese society has always been (for thousands of years) plagued by corruption and abuse from those who have power. Man-above/below-man, man-eating-man has always been the reality in China.

3. Confucianism is a tool for despots/tyrants to pacify/incapacitate the population and stabilize the power-elite’s control over it.

With individuals ready to accept their places in society by birth, by gender, by age, by trade/profession, by social status according to positions in government, passive acceptance of one’s fate without any struggle for one’s own freedom and happiness is the necessary result. A “zombified” population (castrated eunuchs, slaves, moral prostitutes) without soul/conscience is created. The despots/tyrants thus can better control their subjects. Confucianism, by its own very nature, is diametrically opposed to everything America stands for.

4. Some facts about Confucius:

• Confucius himself, by his belief that woman is inferior to man and despicable, had never accepted a single female student in his life time.

• Confucius himself was a murderer. He, as a government official, killed a scholar named Shao Zhengmou (少正卯), simply because he didn’t agree with him.

• Confucius himself was a petty government official and always yearned to climb the social ladder through pleasing the emperor and the court.

• Confucius himself only indoctrinated his students with his views, never allowing any questions and inquiries from others about what he thought. He ruled by his own doctrine – everything is according to birth, gender, age, power, status…, no questions asked.


The very phenomenon that the Chinese Confucian-minded School Board members – Jay Chen, Norman Hsu and Joseph Chang (Hacienda La-Puente Unified School Board) view themselves as the overlords of their constituency and somehow superior to different racial groups (Latinos, Blacks, Whites), while calling their opponents “racists” comes not as a surprise to me.

Chinese character-based pictorial syllabic language is very harmful for human perception of reality and therefore hampers human effort to understand the essence of things – the truth. Superficiality (all face) is intrinsically embedded in the very Chinese language:

1. A simple “I” can have dozens of expressions in Chinese language, according to whom you want to address in the order of Confucian society. To say that a language is neutral and does not carry moral values is a lie and an illusion.

2. Since human brain is separated by left and right hemisphere and each performs a different function, (the left side is in charge of language, mathematics, logical thinking and the right is in charge of music, image and artistic expressions, the Chinese language – a primitive, pictorial and syllabic language, confuses the function of both hemispheres by its own very method of input. As a result, logical thinking/creativity of the individual is severely harmed and hampered. Confusion, not clarity, is a necessary result often witnessed/observed by an English speaking person on/about a Chinese speaking person.

3. Inability to clarify and define concepts is a permanent/negative feature of the Chinese language users. No scientific paper has ever been written in Chinese language. As a result of such inabilities and confusions caused by the Chinese language itself, absolute power by force/violence/guns is a must to maintain temporary order. Logically, human conscience, morality, rationality have never been the foundation/focus of the Chinese population and society. Legitimacy of the government in the Chinese society thus has never had a peaceful origin and will never have, as long as Confucianism which propagates confusion and absolute unity is a dominant social/cultural doctrine, as long as Chinese language is being used to perceive and to communicate.


All societies plagued by Confucianism and Chinese character-based syllabic languages, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, etc., have always been experiencing a perpetual vacuum in human creativity and individual initiatives. Their progress is due to the West/American influence. Their achievement is NEVER because of Confucianism and the primitive syllabic Chinese language, but instead of them.

America is a free society and anyone can use such freedoms to propagate anything, including poisons such as Islamic fundamentalism and Confucianism. Do you, the parents, want to immerse your children to such poisons, knowing the teacher views your children as inferior by his/her race, gender, age, individuality, knowing the teacher simply wants to promote his/her racial/cultural superiority/agenda by taming, civilizing, and domesticating a lesser/barbarian human being from birth?? Do you, the female students/parents/staff/associates feel comfortable knowing your School Board members with their Confucian/Chinese belief, take you as something lesser than them because of your gender?? Do you, the parents of Hacienda La Puente District students, feel it is OK to spread Confucianism as an anti-American ideology and poison the mind of your children?? Do you, as a human being, really think that all men should Not be created equal with rights from God, but only some pitiful creatures from nowhere yearning for some benefits and handouts from government and men, from someone superior???

The choice is yours.

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#34

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Fri Mar 23, 2012 2:58 pm
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts







陈凯博客www.kaichenblog.blogspot.com

陈凯通告:3/28 我将就孔学堂在美国国会作证
Kai Chen Announcement: I Will Testify in US Congress


http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/hearing_notice.asp?id=1415

Folks:

I will be testifying on the issue of Confucius Institutes/Classrooms at a US Congressional Hearing on March 28, 2012. I am glad finally the Congress is paying attention to this important issue.

The hearing is by the Foreign Affairs subcommittee on oversight and investigations will titled "The Price of Public Diplomacy with China" and it is on a broad range of topics involving China's public diplomacy efforts.

It will be in Rayburn 2127 at 2:30PM.

Hope you will attend and I will keep you all posted. Kai Chen

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#35

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Fri Mar 30, 2012 9:17 am
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts



陈凯博客www.kaichenblog.blogspot.com

“我的路”(中文字幕)视频连锁:
“My Way" (Chinese Subtitles) Link:


http://kaichenblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/...tv-special.html

“我的路”(英文字幕)视频连锁:
“My Way" (English Subtitles) Link:


http://kaichenblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/...-subtitles.html

陈凯美國會聽證 警惕中共公共外交手段
Kai Chen and Others in US Congressional Hearing on Confucius Institutes/Classrooms


2012-03-30 00:54:10

Audio of the Hearing 音频连锁:

http://www.voanews.com/chinese/news/2012...-144669225.html

Video Link 视频连锁:

http://ap.ntdtv.com/b5/20120330/video/92...%89%8B%E6%AE%B5

【新唐人2012年3月30日訊】美國國會週三舉辦一場聽證會,關注中共通過公共外交手段,向美國輸出其意識形態宣傳。與會學者警告,中共正在通過孔子學院以及媒體方式,對美國社會進行洗腦和滲透。

美國國會議員Dana Rohrabacher:「中共為何在美國到處建孔子學院﹖我想他們並不是因為他們喜歡我們、愛我們、對我們好,他們可能有其他的目的。」

目前,中共在美國大學和中學建立了超過70所的孔子學院和孔子教室。他們不僅提供來自中國的教學課本、老師,更提供資金。專家指出,其背後隱藏著中共的統戰、滲透等多重目的。

人口研究所所長Steven Mosher:「孔子學院不僅與中共政府相關,而且也沒有自己的目標。他們依附於已有的大專院校。他們受國家漢語國際推廣領導小組辦公室領導,但他們在學術上受中國教育部管理,在實際操作上受中共統戰部領導。實際上,孔子學院的理事會主席是劉延東,她在2002年到2007年任統戰部部長。」

出席作證的人口研究所所長毛思迪(Steven Mosher)曾就讀於斯坦福大學。80年代早期,因毛思迪揭露了中共計劃生育中侵犯人權的做法,中共向斯坦福大學施加了巨大壓力,迫使該校拒絕授予他博士學位。

人口研究所所長Steven Mosher:「從個人經歷中,我看到中共為自己的利益有多麼殘酷,而一些美國學校管理者有多麼懦弱。」

來自加州的人權活動家陳凱曾抵制當地學校用中共提供的資金設立孔子學院,最終獲得部分成功。他警告人們應認清中共的本質。

自由人權活動家陳凱:「這是在給美國學生洗腦,(讓他們)認為這是一個正常的教程,而中國是個正常國家。中國(現在)不是一個正常國家,而是一個共產王朝。」

近兩年,中共在海外砸下巨資進行大外宣工程,通過媒體輸出其意識形態宣傳。加州大學商學院學者奧特雷也提醒人們要警惕其欺騙伎倆。奧特雷建議,美國政府應採取有效手段,對中共的海外媒體宣傳加以嚴格限制。

新唐人記者王凱迪美國首都華盛頓報導

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#36

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Thu Nov 15, 2012 6:27 am
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts

[转载]汉语汉字让我们的思想浅薄粗陋

原文地址:汉语汉字让我们的思想浅薄粗陋作者:博客联盟

博大精深,这四个汉字,非常的无聊,空洞无物,最适合吹牛逼。没见有人神侃中国文化,经常引用这四个无聊的汉字,那些粉中医的,粉功夫的,甚至粉烤鸭的,总是把所谓的“博大精”深挂在嘴边,让人觉得二了吧唧傻逼兮兮的,一个屌丝,张嘴闭嘴的“博大精深”,忽悠谁呢?你扛得住吗?

前几天看到有人在争吵关于汉字与英文谁优谁劣的话题,挺热闹的,都在那梗着脖子说自己的道理,我本想插几句话的,但是我没有,不想给谁心里添堵。人家自以为“博大精深”,我何必给人家当头一棒,大煞风景呢。

关于汉字,我琢磨过这玩意,感觉挺没劲的,在人类的各种语言之中,属于比较低级的。象形文字,看图说话,本来就是幼儿的学习内容,我说它高级,你信么?

中国的文字,拼凑到一起,叫汉语了,让外国人来学,人家告诉你,中文没有语法。今天中文的语法是按照西方语言的语法套出来的,什么主谓宾定状,名词动词形容词,这些概念都是西语的语法模式。原本的汉语里面,根本就没有这些。

没有语法的语言和文字,要说也没有什么大不了的,不就是一个交流沟通吗?吃喝拉撒睡,不耽误事就行了!但是,一个族群成千上万的人使用这个语言文字,一用就是3000年,便有麻烦了,这个人群缺乏逻辑思维。说句大家都能听得懂的话,就是这个族群的人脑子不好使!

一提中国文化,以“博大精深”为荣的人肯定要说唐诗宋词元曲明清小说。其实,这里面有个分界线,就是元朝,蒙古人入主中原,几乎废除了科举考试,让喜欢玩填词游戏的宋朝屌丝没了前程。于是,他们都改写曲去了,开始创作为广大的人民群众所喜闻乐见的文艺节目。元曲这中国的文学史上,占有重要地位,蒙古统治者的无意之举,对于促进汉语的进步,做出了非凡的贡献。可以说,自打元朝开始,中国人才开始说人话。

低级的语言,毫无逻辑可言,其严重后果是让这个人族群不能产生深刻的思想家和哲学巨人。孔老二,一个空前绝后的装逼屌丝,后世的统治者把他捧为圣人,儒学作为治国的根本,其实是维稳的根本,如同一块幸福的红布,被蒙在了中国读书人的眼睛上,2000年来,读书人如同一只蠢驴,在那转着圈的拉磨。没有一只驴子能够扯下这块悲催的红布,企图走出这个磨房,去过一种暂新的生活。为什么?没有逻辑思维,脑力不够!

现在很多人喜欢谈民国范儿,在民国的名人里,有一位金岳霖先生,人们喜欢谈的是他对林徽因的一往情深。此人终生未娶,对林徽因情有独钟,每年林徽因的生日那天,他张罗着宴请好朋友,席间空出一张座位来,那是林徽因的,虚席以待。这个举动真的让人动容。有个女屌丝跟我聊过这事儿,说此生要是能遭遇金岳霖先生这样的男人钟情于自己,足矣!我说你先别忙着足矣,你这辈子估计没这个奇遇!她问我为什么?我直言不讳地告诉她:你不是林徽因!

都知道金岳霖是一个旷世情种,我之所以提到这人,因为他是大学里的逻辑课老师。我不知道现在的中国大学里有没有逻辑课?我估计是没有!因为,在伟大光荣正确的领导之下,中国人不需要逻辑!

昨天晚上,跟一个朋友扯蛋,说到了关于文字关于逻辑关于哲学的话题,吵得不亦乐乎,他始终坚持自己的观点,以“博大精深”与我对抗。最后我向他打听一人,问他知道吗?他说是谁啊?我说是雷锋。他说怎么不知道啊,人人都要学习的好榜样!我说你大爷的!一个把雷锋作为道德榜样来学习的族群,其浅薄可窥一斑,你还谈什么博大精深啊?

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#37

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Sun Sep 22, 2013 9:08 am
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts


Chinese language produces living dead 中文语言只制造活死人

邱震海新作《中國人成熟嗎?》的感想 - 華人精神盲點源於漢語邏輯

2013年8月21日

邱震海新作《中國人成熟嗎?》是近年來對華人本質的論述作品之中,比較全面科學化地把華人的思維模式展示給讀者,與其它的民族性格論述,心理分析論述或行為模式論述不同。

這本書集中討論「中國人集體精神世界的成熟程度問題」。邱老師認為:中國人須從聰穎走向成熟,中國人悟性很強,但缺少的是「臨門一腳」的理性精神的學習和培養。

「清末新政,我們功虧一簣,不然20世紀中國歷史將會改寫;辛亥革命,我們功虧一簣,不然20世紀的血雨腥風將可避免;如今,中國的改革又到了十字路口,各派爭執不休,我們是否又要功虧一簣?」:邱震海感同身受地一問。

邱老師認為中國人須擺脫情緒直達核心,並對中國人的本質進行一次全新研究。本人十分同意,華人的思維盲點有需要作全面分析,最好的方法是直接瞭解華人的大腦結構、意識形成、思維建立及思考模式。

通過功能性磁力共振儀,我們可以利用活人來研究人類的大腦思維,現在科學家已經掌握了大量有關思維原理的模型,比如記憶的形成與消亡,大腦不同區域的功能大家現在所瞭解的有關語音區、視覺區、聽覺區、平衡區、圖形區、符號區、味覺區,加速區與身體感官區等等。科學家利用高功能的新型功能性磁力共振儀,對納米大小的腦神經細胞進行近距離的定向觀察,並發現了注意力、意志力等多維高階思維模式的模型。

原來人類思想的構成機制並非由邏輯來主導的,最主要的主導原因是腦神經細胞之間的關聯性結構(Neuro-correlation)。 在語音思維形成的時候,音、意、景、物、形等的感覺會由產生的時候所觸動的所有腦細胞產生改變,並引發記憶區內的腦神經做出一系列的特定形態,並產生了一個特定的記憶的細胞群。

通過腦科學家的研究,當我們用中文來思考數學計算的時候,華人所用的大腦區間與美國人所用的大腦區間是不同的。這證明華人的思維方法,或是用中文來思考的方法與美國人是完全不一樣。 中國語言與文字在兒童成長期間內,已經在個人的大腦之內產生了其獨特的結構與聯繫模式,這個模式是一種長久性的結構化,除非該兒童在成長期內學習其他語言和文字,這種結構化會影響他的一生。

腦科學家有關嬰兒神經結構的研究之中,發現了一個腦神經細胞減少的過程。嬰兒由0歲至3歲,腦神經不停地進行相互關聯,也不停地消亡。由原來的1000億多個神經細胞減少到50%,在此期間,這些腦神經細胞進行重組,包括語言功能,形成語言神經區、視覺神經區、聽覺神經區、觸覺神經區,與其他20多種感官區例如音樂區等,在這些神經細胞的相互聯繫之中產生了自我意識、自動學習與鍛煉的大腦。語言區是其中一個非常重要的思考區域,它的作用綜合了各種感官與形態的細胞所提供的資訊,並進行概念化處理,為將來的高階思維模式提供了基礎。所以說,為什麼嬰兒的語言學習對其將來的智力發展最為重要。

除了日常生活之外,嬰兒大腦的日常工作離不開語言的學習與應用。語言的形成是綜合了音、意、形、色、景、事與觀的綜合概念過程,例如,中國語言中的媽媽、我們一想起這個語音的時候就會產生有關各項感覺,這就是嬰兒對世界的認知過程。

嬰兒從單字、雙字、三字的形成,漸漸地在嬰兒大腦產生了語音區域與其學習的機制。這種機制是一種高階思維模式(High-Order-Thought)的雛形,這種高階思維模式是一種將來形成自我意識、自我認識和行為習慣的基礎。

中國文字與其他國家的文字非常不同,區別是在中文是一種圖形文字。它與其它的文字在腦神經細胞形成所擁有的模式與神經結構化過程產生辦法不一樣,舉個例子,英語是屬於語音與文字同體性質,在一個英語單詞出現在腦神經的時候,它只會與語音區、符號區產生關聯,之間的腦神經聯接比較緊密。

相反,由於中文語音與文字並非同體性質,就是說華人在學習語言的時候已經能產生比較獨立的思考體系,它與中國文字的圖形腦神經區的相關聯接並不緊密。結果,新的中文圖形區會產生另外一種鬆散式的思維模式,並獨立於原來的語言區。

對於學習中文的兒童,由於中文是一種象形文字,兒童在學習的時候會把中文放在圖形區,並不是語音區。這種區域的分佈,會形成兩個獨立的思維區域。簡單來說,華人的思維模式是比較複雜,更多層次。

所以為什麼很多外國人總是不明白,華人在想什麼。同樣的情況,華人也不明白外國人在想什麼。這就是因為大家的腦思維結構有所差別所致。

由於語言及文字的相對獨立及具體,使華人產生了兩個獨立的思維體系在同一個大腦之中,所以華人的心理結構、行為模式、推理方法、處理態度、工作態度、生活態度、家庭觀念、社會觀念、世界觀念也與其他國家與民族不同。

簡單來說,大部分的華人的思維模式是一種典型的二元性思維結構,這種二元性思維結構表現在平時的生活上,絕大部分的老百姓是用語音區來思維,他的思維特性的行為表現是實際、勤奮、刻苦、順從、忘我,比較容易接受權力的支配。

由於這種二元性的思維模式,使華人不容易產生一種具有邏輯性思考的方法 ,面對21世紀挑戰,中國要發展成為一個科技大國,國人必須加強有關邏輯性的思維教肓。

孔子是最瞭解華人的特性,他主張,華人要修身、治國、平天下,就是因為華人的二元思維容易產生一種不穩定的內心狀態,並容易在行為上失控,故此,孔子提出華人先要做的是修身。

相信大家都聽過「語言決定論」及「語言相對論」這二個理論指出語言是一個地區、群體、民族、國家最重要的本質,其他方方面面的事情,包括經濟發展、教肓水準、文明程度、社會價值觀、政治制度、資源分配、權力分佈等,都是該地方語言的投射現象而已。

語言相對論是一個未經科學實驗證明的假設性理論,簡單來說,什麼國人,說什麼語言,用什麼文字,便會出現什麼文明、出現什麼政府、出現什麼食品。這一切都是相對等的。

香港中文大學的張學新教授,發表了劃時代的N200 腦電圖的科研成果,並提出了漢語並非象形文字,而是一種獨有的視覺文字。漢語與世界各國的拼音文字有著本質上的差異,漢語有其獨有的羅輯糸統;這種「漢語羅輯」並不同於西方語言的傳統抽象羅輯。

張教授的全新發現突破了數百年來大眾對漢語語言學,漢語心理學,漢語神結經科學的科研努力,這一發現震撼了中國的腦科學界。著名思想家及哲學家黑格爾曾經說過:華人是例外的例外。張教授可能代到了原因:華人在思維決策上與眾不同的最大原因,可能是由於華人長期使用漢語來思維的原故。

形成「漢語羅輯」的獨特大腦神經結構是因為漢語文字的特性做成,眾所周知漢字是一種圖像文字或稱象形文字,它通過視覺神經進入大腦,相對其他拼音文字附號,漢字的圖像顯得復習得多,漢字之間的變化又大,漢字的數目又多;大腦需要更大的腦神經結集及運算,才能夠對每個進入大腦的漢字進行差異化、個別化、意像化的深層次分類;在進行思考的時候,漢語思維必然再一次從視覺神經區之中,重新接觸原來的視覺感官神結經結,提取關連的意竟,除去差異,再重新組合神經結。由於漢字的復習、多變和數量大,人類大腦的神經連結只是一個仿真系統(Analogue system) ,不可能在每次的組合過程都完美,結果的後果是意念的不準確變成普遍現象,大大影響到抽象概念化能力的產生。

現代羅輯是科學理論的基石,它需要準確的抽象概念能力的運用,進行抽象的推理、歸納、假設、演化以及結論等的程式,整個運作過程,對大腦神結經的要求很高,而最重要的一點,便是意念的清晰。

由於華人長期使用漢語的原故,華人的思維模式也慢慢地變作漢語思維模式,若果這個人從嬰兒期到成年期之中,沒有接受外語教育的話,他的一生的思維模式將受到漢語思維的限制,很少人能夠跳出語言思維的困局。世界知名的思維學家Edward de Bono 曾經指出,每個人的思維能力與其所學的語言有極大的關係,要變做一個有創新能力的人,便先要衝破語言的鎖鏈。漢語是一種「感官語言」,它與使用者形成一套連結身體視覺、聽覺、觸覺、味覺及嗅覺等的全面性神經細胞連結系統,並產生出特有的漢語羅輯。

日本作家加藤嘉一曾寫了一本書:「中國的羅輯」,他指出漢語羅輯的特性是主觀、感性、多變、無標準、個人化、重血緣和隨意。這些特性與一個現代化的大國的型象有很大的差距,他表示大多數華人並未達到作為現代公民的資格;例如食品的安全問題,華人是缺乏人類的基本道德規範,不單只沒有現代人的普世道德價值,不能害別人,更視法律為個人的工具,全無客觀科學的標準。如果想與華人討論人權、民主、自由、法治、公義、平等和環保等當今現代人的普世價值觀,只是對牛彈琴,大部份華人是沒有這些抽象概念。

「漢語思維與羅輯」是華人走向現代文明的最大障礙。正所謂「成也蕭何,敗也蕭何」,漢語曾經幫助華人建立起輝煌的中華文化,唐朝是一個全球最繁榮昌盛的帝國,史稱「天朝」,宋朝時期,無論是文化藝術、飲食旅遊、衣服飾物及建築設計,都是別具一格,在人類美學歷史上留下印記。漢語是一種「感性的藝術語言」,漢語用來寫詩、作畫、寫意景,都是一流的文字;可惜的是,漢語並非萬能的,它並不是一種「理性的科學語言」,漢語用來寫現代法律、作數學運算、寫科學推論,都顯得不倫不類。正可能是這種「漢語的弱點」,引至華人的思想時常過於感性及單一,例如:見到長城便想流淚 — 華人情緒核心。

二元性思維模式的其中一個優勢,便是模仿力強,原因是因為兒童在產生二元性思維的時候,大腦神經系統需要進行一次巨大的重塑進程,由於中國文字的圖形特性,在兒童學習中文的時候,文字會首先由視覺神經系統轉化為影像,並進入了圖像區域,與此同時,該文字的語音由聽覺神經,轉化到聽覺區域,這些由聽覺神經會與原來的聽覺記憶神經進行相互對接,並由聽覺區間的記憶神經與其他有關語音的感覺記憶神經,例如:情、景、意等各種原來的記憶神經交流並重組。腦科學家發現,這個記憶神經細胞群有一促在增加記憶的時候的重組過程,可惜的是,可能是因為記憶細胞群的承載量的限制,圖像記憶細胞所需的細胞可能更多,它不能由原來的語言記憶細胞群所容納,而要在大腦圖像區重新建立一級圖像記憶細胞。

經過這種大腦重塑過程,中國兒童能夠有兩個思考區間,也由於中國兒童在6至7歲時候已經能夠建立兩個思考區間,故此,中國兒童之學習能力與領悟能力也比同齡的西方兒童為高,其中的原因是由於在形成兩個思維區的時候,必須也同時創造出一個新的控制區來協調它們,這個新的思維控制區便是概念化區域,它的位置是在大腦前葉之內,並不在聽覺區及視覺區之內。

概念化區間是多層高階思維模式的基礎,它主導著兒童到少年,以及成年的智力、推理能力,價值觀等高階思維。

中國兒童普遍要比其他國家兒童更為醒目的原因是他們的概念化區的發展較其他國家兒童為早,故此,在大部分的智力測驗之中,中國兒童都是在比較高的位置。

可惜的是,人類大腦的結構是非主動性的,即是說人的大腦神經也是十分懶,如果沒有需要及外部或自我的要求,它會減慢發展,中國大部分人的大腦到了形成二元性思維模式及建構了簡單的概念化思維模式便停了,不發展。

孔子說:吾日三省吾身,這是因為內省是一個發展的概念化的思維區的重要步驟,我們通過內省(Introspection)的方式,可以強化及重塑概念,使一個更有個體意識的自我形成,並能夠產生一種客觀的思考方法。

一個完整的概念化思維模式,會具備歸納、分類、推理、邏輯、客觀辯證、計畫、同理、設計、創作、模擬等多層高階思維能力。

這一種具有高度與完整的概念化思維能力在中國成年人並不常見,即使經過大學教育,還有很多畢業生並不具有一個全面發展的概念化思維區域。

原因是具有二元性思維模式的華人,他可以光用文字的圖形思維區,使可以完成大學程度的要求,而不需要用到更高級的概念化思考區,結果的是,很多人的文章可以寫得很多,文字秀麗,但是文章內容往往不合邏輯,經不起推敲。

而大部分的老百姓,他們畢業之後,根本不用文字區域的思維,只需要用原來的語言區域思維便可以解決日常生活及工作所需,所以中國老百姓就是十分勤勞,而有些忘我之故。

只有少數華人,他們可能由於生活所需,或出於對知識的追求,或個人興趣的關係,或好奇心驅使,或個人意志的堅持,才能把概念化區域慢慢發展好。

現今的中國腦力結構可以說是以二元性思維為主體的腦力結構。

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#38

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Thu Sep 26, 2013 3:39 pm
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts

Hacienda La Puente school board member criticized over China trips
Board will consider whether to censure Joseph Chang in wake of district probe that found his trips created a conflict of interest. Chang denies wrongdoing, calls attacks politically motivated.

Hacienda La Puente school board member Joseph Chang gets ready for a news conference in Hacienda Heights at which he responded to accusations of conflict of interest. (Anne Cusack, Los Angeles Times / September 25, 2013)

By Cindy Chang
September 25, 2013, 9:11 p.m.

In an auditorium in eastern China, Hacienda La Puente school board member Joseph Chang posed for a photograph with 15 students who planned to spend their senior year at Wilson High.

Wearing a black suit and red tie, a beaming Chang was surrounded by teenagers whose parents would shell out tens of thousands of dollars for a year of secondary education in Hacienda Heights, ideally followed by a top American university.

Also at the school that day in August 2012 was Norman Hsu, a former school board member who now works for Bela Education Group, a private company that recruits Chinese students to study in the Hacienda La Puente Unified School District.

Chang is now facing questions over who paid his airfare to China and whether he used his elected position to benefit Hsu's company.

On Thursday, Chang's school board colleagues will consider whether to censure him after a district investigation found that the trip and several others created a conflict of interest. The Los Angeles County district attorney's office has written to the school district asking for documents relating to Chang's China travels.

"There are very questionable ties to existing and past board members," said school board President Jay Chen, who is critical of the arrangement with Bela. "There are far too many conflicts of interest, the kind of thing that really shakes public confidence in elected officials."

Chang held a news conference Wednesday to accuse Chen of attacking him for political gain. A math professor at Cal State Fullerton, Chang is up for reelection in November, with five other candidates competing for three seats.

"My Bela relationship is only to help them to establish the program," Chang said. "I don't have anything from Bela. Nothing. So this always tying me to Bela is a false accusation, trying to fabricate that I got profits from them. This is really, really dirty politicians trying to attack me."

In a December 2012 public disclosure, Chang declared that Bela had paid his $1,000 airfare for each of three recruiting trips to China. He said Wednesday that Hsu, who is Bela's managing director, picked up the tab, and that he has since reimbursed his friend.

Gifts to California elected officials are normally subject to a $420 limit, though some types of travel are exempt. Chang said his trips to China were legal because he was offering his expertise as an educator.

Chang's critics also allege that he has advocated to keep the district's international student tuition low so Bela can reap a higher profit, and that he has pressured school officials to accept unqualified Chinese students.

Under federal law, an international student who enrolls in a public high school must pay the full cost of his or her education. That means tuition in the neighborhood of $15,000 in some school districts.

The Hacienda La Puente district, which has about 20 students from China this year, initially charged $8,600, then raised its fee this summer to $12,900 with the support of all but one board member — still below the $14,459 that the district is spending per pupil this year.

Bela lists a tuition of nearly $15,000 on its website, along with fees for SAT classes, visa processing and room and board. In all, Chinese families pay Bela about $30,000.

In an interview Wednesday, Chang said he believed that the $12,900 tuition fee reflected the actual cost to the district. He also said that he has inquired about the status of some international student applications but never pushed school officials to change denials into acceptances.

Most Chinese students enrolled at Hacienda La Puente this year and last year were not directly associated with Bela, though receipts from the school district listed Chang or Hsu as the recruiter for some students. Bela's presence in the school district, which is already home to many Chinese families, will expand next year with 30 students.

Hsu, who served on the school board for two decades until 2011 and is still influential in the Hacienda Heights Chinese community, acknowledged that he works for Bela but said he is not involved in any programs related to the school district.

The district's May 2013 investigative report also found students living with host families who did not always provide them with adequate food, heat or supervision. School administrators have been taxed by the extra work of helping foreign students in the country without their families, the report said.

"It shouldn't be costing the district and overtaxing the teachers," said Jane Shults, head of the Hacienda La Puente Teachers Assn. "It's a great program to have, but we need to have enough money to take care of these kids."

cindy.1c
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District Attorney investigating two Hacienda La Puente board members

By Steve Scauzillo, San Gabriel Valley Tribune

Posted: 09/25/13, 9:56 PM

The Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office has launched an investigation into two board members with the Hacienda La Puente Unified School District regarding possible illegalities stemming from unauthorized trips to China, the newspaper has learned.

A letter from District Attorney Jackie Lacey, dated Sept.  19, asks the school district for several documents, including economic interest forms filed by Gino Kwok and Joseph Chang. The forms declare gifts or other compensation received from outsiders.

According to the letter, the District Attorney’s Public Integrity Division, which looks into wrongdoing of public officials, “is conducting an investigation which requires access to certain documents  ...”

The letter is signed by Lacey and was addressed to HLPUSD Interim Superintendent Cynthia Parulan-Colfer.

District Attorney spokeswoman Jean Guccione, when asked if the D.A. had received any of the requested documents said: “We have no comment.”

The D.A. also is asking for board meeting minutes in which “trips to China involving any HLPUSD employee were approved,” the letter stated.

Finally, the letter asks the district for a copy of a report examining possible wrongdoings involving the district’s foreign student program. The D.A. asked for the non-redacted version of the Hacienda La Puente Unified School District Administrative Audit, which was prepared by Lozano Smith and attorneys, as well as private investigators from Norman A. Traub Associates.

According to an article from Sept.  12 in this newspaper, the report laid out serious problems with the program, including host homes with no heat and inadequate food, as well as students subject to verbal abuse and physical ailments.

The report also focused on four trips to China made by Chang with former board member Norman Hsu, who is affiliated with a private company called BELA Educational Group, which charges students to attend local high schools. Chang and Hsu were visiting schools in China and attempting to recruit Chinese students to attend Wilson High School in Hacienda Heights for a year.

Hsu, listed as CEO of BELA in a Chinese media report, was collecting $15,000 or more from each student to attend American high schools for a year, according to the report. The HLPUSD charged some of the lowest tuition fees in the region until the board tried to raise the tuition to $14,000. The raise was voted down by Chang and Kwok, who along with the board majority in July, voted to lower the fee to $12,900.

In comparison, Walnut Valley Unified School District charges $15,000 per student.

The report concluded that Chang did not tell the board about his trips to China with Hsu and were not authorized by the board. In the report, Chang said he was paid $3,000 for airfare from Hsu, but paid the money back. He said he did not act as an official board representative.

At a press conference in Hacienda Heights on Wednesday, Chang denied any wrongdoing.

“I made these trips with good intentions,” he told a mostly friendly audience of supporters gathered at the K-CAL Insurance Co. in a strip mall off Hacienda Boulevard.

“Hopefully, we can recruit good international students,” he said.

When a reporter asked him who paid for his trips to China, he said “my friend” — but when pressed to identify the individual, Chang refused.

Kwok, who attended the conference but did not make a statement, said in an interview that he was surprised his name was on the District Attorney’s letter. “I spoke to Superintendent Cynthia Parulan-Colfer recently, and she said that there is no reason for my name to be involved in any D.A. matter because my name is not even mentioned in any school district investigation,” he wrote in a prepared statement.

When asked if he took trips to China, he said: “No. Absolutely not.”

Hsu would not answer any questions about his organization BELA, his trips to China, how much revenue the organization receives per student, or the poor living conditions cited in the report in a few of the host homes.

He referred all inquiries to his lawyer. When asked to provide his lawyer’s name or contact, he refused.

“I am not a board member. So I can do anything I want, as long as it is legal,” Hsu said.

When asked about the accusations in the report about Chang asking a teacher to extend the one-year visa of a student from China or about pressuring the district to accept students from China who were not academically qualified, Chang either denied the allegation or blamed fellow board member Jay Chen.

“He (Chen) is attacking me  ... to develop his political career,” Chang said.

In November, Chen ran for Congress as a Democrat and lost to incumbent Rep. Ed Royce, R-Rowland Heights. Hsu and Chang were supporters of Royce.

Chen, reached by phone, said he did not know how to respond to such an allegation.

He has been raising the issue of the foreign student program for almost a year. He said he was concerned a board member or former board member may be profiting off of students that come to the district and take up an inordinate amount of teacher time, time that is taken away from the district’s resident students.

“I think this is a very serious matter,” Chen said. “The D.A. would not be putting forward this case unless there is significant indication some wrongdoing has taken place.”

He emphasized that the District Attorney is looking into two board members only and not the district or its administration. “The district has not been accused of doing anything wrong.”

At its meeting today, the school board has scheduled a censure of board member Chang.

A censure is a rebuke of a school board member’s behavior.

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#39

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Sun Sep 29, 2013 7:00 am
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts

Hacienda La Puente school district votes to censure Joseph Chang

By Steve Scauzillo, San Gabriel Valley Tribune

Posted: 09/27/13, 7:49 PM

The Hacienda La Puente Unified School District board censured fellow board member Joseph Chang on Thursday night, citing several ethics violations, including taking unauthorized trips to China to recruit foreign students, violating the board’s conflict of interest policy and overstepping his authority.

This was the first censure of a board member in the history of the district, according to school officials. Founded in 1970, HLPUSD is the largest school district in the San Gabriel Valley with 78,000 K-12 and adult students at 17 elementary, six K-8, four middle and five high schools and adult-education facilities.

The board voted 3-1 for censure. School board members Jay Chen, Anthony Duarte and Rudy Chavarria voted in favor, while Chang voted in opposition. Board member Gino Kwok abstained.

Censure is a rebuke by the board of Chang’s actions but holds no other legal ramifications. Chang can continue in his duties on the board and is also running for re-election on Nov. 5.

Earlier this month, Board member Anthony Duarte asked for the censure motion after a 66-page report authorized by the former superintendent said Chang’s trips were inappropriate and unauthorized. The report said his trips were paid for by BELA, a private recruiting firm, or by Norman Hsu, a former board member and the managing director of BELA. BELA can make between $7,500 and $15,000 over two years, according to the report. Chang’s participation, combined with his votes on the program and specifically on lowering district tuition for foreign students, could constitute a conflict of interest, according to the report.

Hsu, speaking through his attorneys at Dhillon & Smith, said in a written answer to questions that “BELA does not charge students to come to the United States.” The attorneys also wrote that BELA has not received compensation for housing students in the U.S.

The report also contends Chang may have pressured teachers at Wilson High School in Hacienda Heights to accept students from China who did not meet English language proficiency requirements in order to continue the flow of students into Wilson High. The report said Chang’s credibility could have been in question when he suggested a student from China continue attend district schools illegally, beyond the federal visa one-year limit.

“The consensus is the staff felt they were pressured and bullied by Dr. Chang,” Duarte said before voting in favor of censure.

He said the issue raised by other board members that the public may not have had adequate time to understand the censure was resolved, saying the community has read the report and many have expressed their views to the board since it was detailed in the San Gabriel Valley Tribune earlier this month.

Chang and Kwok are being investigated by the Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office Public Integrity Division, which has asked for the two board member’s economic interest forms and other pertinent board documents relating to unauthorized trips to China and the possible connection to BELA.

Kwok said his trip to China was authorized. He was not subject to censure.

Chang sat silent during most of the discussion on censure. After Chen read a lengthy motion citing the reasons for censure, Chang blurted out: “All these allegations are without proof. They were fabricated by you.”

Attorney Steven Haskins, with the law firm Arent Fox, read a letter to the board written by Chang’s main attorney, Stephen G. Larson, asking the board to hold off on a censure motion until the District Attorney’s investigation is concluded.

He also said the Fair Political Practices Commission is investigating.

“We are confident that, after these false claims are fully reviewed by the authorities, Dr. Chang will be found to be completely innocent of any allegation of wrongdoing,” Haskins read from the letter.

Longtime board critic Rudy Obad said during the public comment period that the international program should be suspended. “Mr. Chang, I say you should resign. But if you are proven guilty, I hope they lock you up.”

Margaret Caldera, CSEA spokesperson and 26-year employee, cited the problems listed in the report with some of the foreign students who were living in homes without adequate food and heat. One student reported to the district police that he was so stressed his hair was falling out.

“There were reports of child abuse and neglect. That is where our main focus should be,” she said. Caldera asked the board to examine the district’s police reports on the allegations of poor living conditions.

Chen said the censure action will help the board regain the trust of the public and help the district “to put this behind us.”

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#40

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Tue Nov 12, 2013 7:04 am
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts

Question from Jamie Glazov (Host of Glazov Gang Show):

Kai Chen -- Can you explain how by adopting the English language, China can more easily shed itself of totalitarianism and move toward freedom. What is it about the Chinese language that has ill effects on a culture and society?
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Virginia Dobel and 2 others like this.

Will Erickson All I can say is that I had a Japanese girlfriend once. She told me that she did not like to hear people speak Japanese, because it reminded her of how sexist and oppressive Japanese culture is.
17 hours ago · Unlike · 3

Will Erickson Language does effect the way people think. For example, Spanish does not have a word for 'earn'. They use the word 'ganar' - to win. Get it? People don't 'earn' of living. They get lucky and win, or beat it away from someone else.
17 hours ago · Edited · Like · 3

Jamie Glazov Will Erickson -- Right.....Kai Chen has some fascinating findings on this......It is very interesting how language itself either promotes or defeats individualism and pursuit of self-determination.
17 hours ago · Like · 2

Will Erickson Thanks Jamie, I will check it out.
17 hours ago · Like

Jamie Glazov We will wait for Kai Chen to comment here......
17 hours ago · Like · 2

Jamie Glazov I know in my own experience with the Chinese community for some 20 years......there was a huge disapprovingness from them toward me, as my nature is very individualistic and I am always doing what I want and vigorously crystallizing my own interests and desires and pursuing them. [This is obviously not mutually exclusive with generosity and compassion…which are obviously magnified when one is free rather than enslaved] …..

In any case I didn't know it was odd to be doing what one wants to do (i.e. dating a woman that one is attracted to, and not dating a woman that one isn’t attracted to, going to a gym because one wants to, eating what one wants to, pursuing professional and recreational activities that one likes, and actually understanding that one is allowed to like and have one one’s own interests and desires etc.).

It simply horrified them that a person would be going about one’s business ……I noticed how the children of many Chinese families I knew were almost indistinguishable from one another in character....they were not encouraged and inspired to develop separate personalities and interests, etc. And it was frowned upon if they did.

I got a profound insight into this from Jung Chang and Jon Halliday's "Mao: The Unknown Story" which, in describing the terror that mass murdered 70 million people ..... entailed the phenomenon of how the Chinese were purged of the dare to be different. The book describes how under Mao people began to censor themselves, their own individual emotions, interests ..... humor ..... thoughts..... everything ......Even Intriguingly enough, several Chinese explained to me that the language itself helps to keep these chains and cages against individualism in check. .... and that it is no coincidence why communism succeeded in China.

Kai Chen speaks of the Chinese language and how it aids in imprisoning humans. I will be very interested in his thoughts on this and feedback on my own experience.
16 hours ago · Edited · Like · 2

Will Erickson Interesting. I took Japanese in college. I met a girl that helped me a little bit. She informed me that I should not 'personalize' my speech. That conformity was expected. That there is no room for individuality in the Japanese language.
16 hours ago · Like · 2

Steven Ewing Jamie, what about the Russian language? Do you feel it hindered you or your parents "yearning to breath free"? I would think considering all the great Musicians, Composers, Dancers, Writers, ect... that the Russian language is very open to expression.
16 hours ago · Like

Sondra Anice Barnes July 31, 2009
Exclusive: Arabs’ Language Oppression Squelches Intellectual Growth
Dr. Sami Alrabaa Contributing Editor Dr. Sami Alrabaa, an ex-Muslim, is...See More
16 hours ago · Like · 1

Sondra Anice Barnes PART 2 OF ABOVE POST:Sixty percent of Arabs are still illiterate or semi-literate and thus
they are ostracized from reading and accessing education. The majority of
Arabs sparsely read. They hate the pedantic structure of Standard Arabic....See More
16 hours ago · Like · 1

Steven Ewing Isn't the problem in Arabic speaking countries more of an Islam/religion problem than a language problem?
16 hours ago · Like

Jamie Glazov Steven Ewing -- I don't know so much about my own language in this context.......in my own mind and what I see there is a lot of venue for individual expression.......but perhaps I am missing something.......several Russians have told me that they can ...See More
16 hours ago · Edited · Like · 1

Steven Ewing Jamie Glazov Do you know if there is a similar word in Russian (Русский язык) to the English word "busybody"? I heard Rush Limbaugh talking today on his show about the inclination of Socialists/Progressives to always want to control how everyone lives....See More
16 hours ago · Like

Jamie Glazov Steven Ewing V kaszhdooyoo boschkoo zadeechka (Into every hole in the bucket a filling).....it is a saying in Russian to describe an asshole who thinks he has the answer to every problem and is budding his nose into everyone's business and telling them how to live.
15 hours ago · Edited · Like

Sondra Anice Barnes Can you even guess how angry I was when I learned that here in Los Angeles, even if you live in a very nice apartment that is well cared for, that the "slum landlord police" (government workers) can enter your apartment even if you are not home and in...See More
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Kai Chen http://www.amazon.com/.../dp/0812237110/ref=sr_1_1...

The Writing on the Wall: How Asian Orthography Curbs Creativity (Encounters with Asia)
www.amazon.com
Students in Japan, China, and Korea are among the world's top performers on stan...
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Kai Chen http://www.youpai.org/forums/viewtopic.php...

右派论坛 Youpai Forum :: 阅读主题 - 孔儒说教的邪恶与中文语言对人认知真实的危害 The Evil of Confucianism
www.youpai.org
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Kai Chen Jamie: I pasted above links to give you a little background of the complex issue you have touched by your question. I deeply appreciate your attention and curiosity on this very important issue. Every language has affected the related culture deepl...See More
14 hours ago · Like · 3

Kai Chen Morality, values, reasoning, culture are deeply related to the language one uses. Make no mistake about this.
14 hours ago · Like · 4

Steven Ewing Kai Chen--Do you believe the difference between the written Chinese and written Japanese (which is at least partly based on Chinese characters) and the resulting thinking and logic patterns is big enough to have allowed Japan to become a democratic country and prevent China from moving the same direction, or is there more/something else?
14 hours ago · Like · 1

Kai Chen There is no difference between Japanese and Chinese in that they are character-based. But there have been some reform in the Japanese language. Yet the system Japan has now is much due to the Americans after WWII, not due to the language and culture themselves. More correctly, democracy is possible not because of the Chinese character-based language, but despite it. As long as there is American influence, freedom has a chance to grow. Without American influence, no chance. Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines.., are only few such examples.
14 hours ago · Like · 4

Kai Chen The Chinese government is doing everything in China to prevent American influence from taking place. They have some effective measures set to counter such influence, such as corruption of the American businesses, setting up Confucius Institutes/Classr...See More
13 hours ago · Like · 2

Steven Castle Kenney Jr III More like easily communicate to us to disarm when they come here...
13 hours ago via mobile · Like · 1

Julie Worthey What a great conversation. I have always been interested and drawn to the subject of language and how it affects a person's perspective, thoughts, understanding..... Thank you.
12 hours ago via mobile · Unlike · 3


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#41

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Wed Nov 20, 2013 9:02 am
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts



一只被砸烂的青蛙 -- 中国人的语言与无哲学
A Smashed Frog - Chinese Understanding of Truth Hampered by Their Character-based, Syllabic Language


陈凯一语 Kai Chen's Words:

中文是一个情感与艺术语言,是决不能用于逻辑与理性的交流的。 中文本身的无能造成了中国人病态的暴力语言。

用单音节象形文字的中文去追求真理有如用一把锤子去解剖一只青蛙。 你决得不到青蛙的生理知识。 你所得到的只是一只被砸烂的青蛙。 中国人的历史只是一个用尽心思相互杀戳争夺用那把锤子的历史。 他们所得到的也只能是一堆被砸烂的青蛙。

黎鸣先生只表述了他对中国人不求真理,没有哲学的恼怒。 但他没有挖出全部的病根。 中文作为工具不光无能,它也是消灭人类道德的病毒的传播体。 一个对真理绝缘的文化是绝不能建立健康的道德价值的。

Chinese language is an art to express emotions only. It can never be used to express ideas and thoughts with logic. As a result of Chinese language's inability, defects and inadequacy, it is very common for a "Chinese" to resort to violent language in debate and discussion.

Using the Chinese character-based, syllabic language to pursue knowledge and truth is like using a hammer to dissect a frog. In the end, you will not acquire any knowledge about the frog's physiology. Instead, you will only get a smashed frog. China's history can be described as a history of killing each other to grab that hammer. What the Chinese get in the end is never knowledge and truth of anything, but a pile of smashed frogs.

I can understand Mr. Liming's frustration about the Chinese tendency of never pursuing truth and knowledge, of never having anything close to a philosophical discourse. But he fails to dig up all the root causes of such a tendency. Chinese language as a tool is not only impotent in discovering truth, it is a media to spread viruses to contaminate human morality, for a language so impotent to pursue knowledge and truth is a language bound to breed distorted and perverted versions of reality.


*********************************************

Dear Visitors:

I will paste Mr. Liming's article 中国人为什么是个永远都在自我毁弃哲学的民族?here for you to read.

Mr. Liming has yet to grasp the root cause of China' anti-intellect culture -- the Chinese character-based syllabic language itself.

The anti-intellect intellectuals in China have been bred from the very beginning, since the time they pick up a brush to mimic their ancestors' calligraphy of the Chinese syllabic characters, to castrate themselves of their own capacity of any real intellectual debate and discourse. They are impotent facing unknown, facing nature, facing truth and knowledge. They are rendered helpless by their own ancestors' invention -- the Chinese character-based, syllabic language. If you have not grasped this crucial cause of China's problems and its perpetual despotism and tyranny, you are still trapped.

So think again and think hard. You may gradually get it.

Best. Kai Chen 陈凯

-------------------------------------------------------------

Reprint of Liming's Article

2007年12月2日 星期日

黎鸣:中国人为什么是个永远都在自我毁弃哲学的民族?

中国人是个没有哲学的民族。为什么?因为中国人永远,甚至时时刻刻,都在毁弃自己人中有可能涌现出来的哲学,正如我在过去的一篇文章中所谈到的,在漫长的历史中,中国人也永远都在灭绝自己人中时时刻刻都有可能涌现出来(领悟哲学——真理)的天才。这是真实,这是中国人两千多年来历史中的千真万确的真实。

什么是哲学?

哲学就是爱智慧之学,也即言智慧、行智慧、思智慧之学。

然而,什么又是智慧呢?

智慧就是由信真理、知真实、爱真诚这三个环节组成的永远不可分的人类精神的三位一体,而其中最关键的,且首当其冲的更又是“信真理”,以及永远不断地坚持追求和发现更新的真理。这是因为,只有信仰可靠的真理,才能真正有效地知(判断)真实,以及更进一步直觉地爱(体认、体察、体现)真诚。又因为,只有永远不断地坚持发现更新的真理,才能更有效地推进、增长、深化“知真实”所获得的真知识,才能更充分、更全面地直觉体察到“爱真诚”对于人类的文明来说将有多么重要和多么美好。更因为,只有如此“三位一体”不断地循环往复,人类的智慧,更进一步全人类的文明,才可能真正获得有效的进化、发展和提高。

从上所述显然可知,什么是哲学?哲学实质上就是追求、发现、信仰真理之学。舍去真理,将不可能有哲学。这是铁板钉钉,毫无疑义的结论。说得更简明一点,哲学就是求真理之学,或者用前面“爱智慧”的方式来说,哲学就是言真理、行真理、思真理之学。换言之,无真理,则根本就不可能有哲学。

按照我前面文章的结论,中国人其实是个永远无视真理的民族,所以顺理成章,中国人也是个永远无(视)哲学的民族。而事实上,也确确实实是如此。用我的文章标题来说,即:中国人是个永远都在自我毁弃哲学的民族。

下面,我们就从“自我毁弃哲学”这一点来认真回顾一下中国的思想史,看看是不是如此。

回到远古。中华民族的祖先并不是不追求真理的祖先。显然的一点,中国人的远祖伏羲画卦,其目的即在追求真理,而并不是用来算命。为什么?大家知道,伏羲是首先发明网罟,以用来捕鱼的发明家,而他也因此而发明了阴阳、三行、六度(“易大象”)的抽象的网状逻辑,这也是顺理成章的事情。网状物可以捕鱼,而网状逻辑则可以捕获抽象的“真理”。令我们不能不感到惊异的是,阴阳、三行、六度(“易大象”)的网状逻辑,的确是我们今天才刚刚认识到的语言、数学、思维的全逻辑的最佳表现形式,它们之间的神奇的巧合,的确是值得我们今天中华民族的子孙为我们伟大的祖先极感自豪的事情。关于这种网状逻辑形态的全逻辑(“易大象”),我以后会有专著进行全面的论述。

可是这种伟大的思维逻辑,到了周文王、周公的手里,却变成了完全用来算命的工具——《周易》。从“易大象”到《周易》,这是在中国人的历史上发生的第一次最严重地自我毁弃哲学的事件。当周文王、周公急功近利地为伏羲的卦画进行具象的命名(乾坤震巽坎离艮兑等等),并把他们的最粗鄙的愿望(祷告辞)也都相应地变成了卦辞、爻辞之时,这就好有一比,伏羲发明的网状逻辑中的每一个网眼,都被周文王、周公们利用日常运用的语言垃圾给封堵死了。请大家想想,堵死了网眼的渔网能够捕鱼吗?不能。同理,堵死了“网眼”的网状逻辑也不再是能够“捕获”真理的真逻辑了,而只能是一堆废物。而《周易》,再加上儒家的所谓《易传》,其实就是不折不扣的一堆文字废物。正是因此,追求真理的伏羲,最后变成了无视真理的周文王、周公;相应地,创造了伟大的哲学逻辑的伏羲,最后也显然变成了完全无视和毁弃哲学逻辑的周文王、周公。这时的周文王、周公,作为人,他们实际上已经不自觉地完全丧失了追求真理的人类灵性的“自我”,而完全变成了盲目撞运气而向“天命”,其实是向“宿命”乞讨的乞儿,而且更糟糕的是,他们把自己的最粗鄙的生活经验、愿望(他们关于卦辞爻辞的祷告的祷辞),竟然变成了严重地影响了后来两三千年之中的中华民族所有后人的垃圾读物——《周易》,而使之陷入了让他们永远都只能极其狭隘地认识世界的 “深井”,而中华民族的后人,在后来的两千多年中,几乎真就全都变成了在这座深井之中坐井观天的“井底之蛙”,甚至直到今天,还难以爬出这座“井”来。而中华民族也只有自认倒霉,不能不变成了一个愈来愈逐渐向愚昧的深渊苦难地爬行的民族。然而,让《周易》直接变成中国人两千多年来的“垃圾读物”,甚至儿童发蒙“教材”的人,也即直接造成中国人从此对世界的认识深深地陷入了这座极其狭隘的坐井观天的“深井”中的人,他究竟是谁呢?我告诉大家,他正是中国人直到现在还在迷信、崇拜的“圣人”——孔子。尽管实际上,对于人类的智慧和文明来说,孔子确确实实只是一个满怀乡愿的十足的庸人,一根祸害中华民族文明的巨大的搅屎棍,一条实实在在长期以来糊弄中华文明的“丧家犬”。他一味只知道要尊崇君君臣臣等级制度的“周礼”,却根本就不知道人类最需要的本应是认识世界的真理。他或许本不是一个最坏最坏的人,但他的确为中华民族做了最坏最坏的事情;由于历代极权专制统治者对他和他的儒家的情有独钟的选择,从而他个人的愚昧和乡愿式的昏聩,事实上已经让中华民族整整愚昧、落后、遭罪了两千多年,也即让中华民族的文明和智慧整整停滞发展了两千多年。说白了,是让中华民族两千多年中所有曾经生活过的人们几乎全都毫无价值地也即不知真理为何物地白活了一生。关于孔子,有人说他和他的儒家只不过是历史的替罪羊(参见从台湾来的付佩荣先生)。这种说法本身即是盲目尊孔者的极其无知之谈,然而这种说法并不能丝毫减轻孔子及其儒家本身对于中华民族的严重的历史罪责。我后面还将继续讨论下去,直到中华民族子子孙孙中的绝大多数人能够真正从深深愚昧的历史重负之中完全清醒过来为止。

可以看到,孔子把完全是文字垃圾的《周易》(当然也还得加上历代极权专制统治者及其御用文人们不断的推波助澜),竟然规定为两千多年来中华民族子子孙孙最重要的发蒙“教材”——《六经》之首,这是中国历史中的一个何等严重的“文化”误导,更甚至是一个何等严重的文化的犯罪?它不仅仅只是坚持周文王、周公们的“自我毁弃哲学”的行为,而且还更把这种“自我毁弃哲学”的行为当成了中国人从此以后当然的历史传统,而要求后人重重复复、永永远远地继承下去,乃至一直到了今天,类似的行为还在当然地继续发生。而作为文字垃圾的《周易》,至今仍被许多人捧上了天,两千多年来多少人为它皓首穷经,终生糊涂而一无所获。实际上,中国人根本就已经丧失了对它进行任何真理性判断的能力。正是因此,《周易》永远是“伟大的”《周易》,它事实上已经变成了中国人永远的精神鸦片。读(毒)了还要读(毒),吸了还要吸,永远读(毒),永远吸,终于造成了中国人简直就是一个永远坚守痼疾、永远愚顽不化的民族,这真是中华民族的一个多么巨大的文化历史的悲剧!

纵观全部中国的思想史,尤其在汉武帝决定“独尊儒术”之后的中国思想史,没有受到过孔子及其儒家的精神毒害的人几乎根本就不存在。正是因此,即使近现代最著名的中国学人,例如胡适、冯友兰、梁漱溟等等,更不要说其他研究“中国哲学”的人们,仍然全都视孔子为中国古代最重要乃至最伟大的“哲人”之一,而儒学更是成了中国最大的“哲学”流派。这真是一个多么巨大而尖锐的文明的自我嘲讽?既荒谬之极,更荒诞之极。孔子及其儒家何来“哲学”,更如何还成为了“哲人”?难道天下竟有如此无视真理,甚至如此反对和毁弃真理的哲学和哲人么?

如果真要在中国古代寻找“哲人”,除了最早的伏羲,也就只有老子和墨子等极少数的几位了,然而就是这极少数的几位,也全都遭到了根本性的毁弃,例如老子,就被儒家文人们改造得面目全非,老子的著作《道德经》遭到了根本性的曲解,“常道”被颠倒成了“非常道”,从而老子也被强行变成了无视真理、毁弃哲学的儒家的同谋了。至于墨子,由于儒家的遮蔽,整整被中国人遗忘了两千多年,直到清末才被人重新提起。总之,他们的哲学全都被儒家的文人们毁弃了。而在秦汉之后的两千多年之中,由于孔子及其儒家的严重的遮蔽和歪曲,更加上历代极权专制统治者的极端残酷的迫害,中国的“哲人”简直就完全绝迹了,而惟一只剩下了永远不断自我毁弃哲学的无哲学、无真理的完全是一片黑暗的中国无思想史。

“自我毁弃哲学”的现象,在近半个多世纪的中国也同样在发生。近半个多世纪以来,我们中国虽然没有自己的哲学,但也同样拒绝外来真正的哲学。我可以负责任地说,近半个多世纪以来在中国学校里所宣讲的哲学并不是真正重要的哲学,而只是外来哲学中的并不十分重要的枝枝叶叶,而且是经过了一些无知者大量歪曲和篡改的虚假的枝枝叶叶。

什么是近现代真正重要的哲学?我认为近现代真正重要的哲学只能是真正孕育了西方近现代人类科学技术精神和民主自由精神的西方近现代哲学,而西方近现代哲学的核心逻辑是形式逻辑(包括数理逻辑),至于其他的逻辑,例如辩证逻辑、现象学逻辑等等,全都只能是思维方法上的极其有限的补充或变种,它们根本就不可能单独有效地运用,而最多也只能是在形式逻辑的基础上起一点点辅助性的作用。令人不解的是,在中国的学校只能讲从苏俄舶来的唯物辩证法哲学,即经过了前苏联的一些显然是哲学偏见者所编篡的所谓《马克思列宁主义哲学》,而根本就不讲与形式逻辑密切相关并真正孕育了近现代人类科学、民主、自由精神的近现代西方哲学;而且更有害的是,把形式逻辑颠倒地宣判为“孤立、静止、片面”的“错误”的甚至“反动”的“形而上学”。曾经有一个故事。50年代初著名的中央党校哲学大教授艾思奇先生到清华大学讲学,批判形式逻辑的“错误”,甚至“反动”。而主持这次演讲会的清华大学哲学教授却是从西方留学归来的形式逻辑方面的专家金岳霖先生。可以想象金先生当时的尴尬。金先生在结束语中幽默地,但也是不得已而自我解嘲地说:“艾思奇同志今天的报告也还是符合形式逻辑的。”

现在回顾起来,从爱智慧的意义上看,近半个多世纪以来中国人对形式逻辑的批判和拒绝是极其错误甚至极其反动的,实质上是批判和拒绝人类思维的最基本的规律和真理,事实上也同样是在“自我毁弃哲学”。因为真正说起来,直至今天,也只有形式逻辑真正反映了人类最基本的思维规律,也即思维的真理;而拒绝了形式逻辑规律和真理的辩证逻辑,最后几乎全都变成了人们为自身错误甚至邪恶进行狡辩的诡辩逻辑和大讲废话的套话逻辑。这种“诡辩”和“套话”的例子,在中国近半个多世纪的历史中简直俯拾皆是,甚至现在还在不断地继续发生。

(请网友直接进入我个人的网页:www.liming1944.com,谢ฃ...。);

張貼者: NCN Editor 位於 12/02/2007 08:50:00 下午 標籤: 中国文化, 思想理论


Last edited Wed Nov 20, 2013 9:03 am | Scroll up

#42

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Tue Dec 24, 2013 7:35 am
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts

看看那些自相矛盾的名言和俗語!

1、俗話說:好馬不吃回頭草;可俗話又說:浪子回頭金不換!
2、俗話說:兔子不吃窩邊草;可俗話又說:近水樓台先得月!
3、俗話說:宰相肚裡能撐船;可俗話又說:有仇不報非君子!
4、俗話說:男子漢大丈夫,寧死不屈;可俗話又說:男子漢大丈夫,能屈能伸!
5、俗話說:打狗還得看主人;可俗話又說:殺雞給猴看!
6、俗話說:知無不言,言無不盡;可俗話又說:交淺勿言深,沉默是金!
7、俗話說:車到山前必有路;可俗話又說:不撞南牆不回頭!
8、俗話說:人不犯我,我不犯人;可俗話又說:先下手為強,後下手遭殃!
9、俗話說:禮輕情誼重;可俗話又說:禮多人不怪!
10、俗話說:人多力量大;可俗話又說:人多嘴雜!

11、俗話說:買賣不成仁義在;可俗話又說:親兄弟,明算帳!
12、俗話說:一個好漢三個幫;可俗話又說:靠人不如靠己!
13、俗話說:人往高處走;可俗話又說:爬得高,摔得重!
14、俗話說:一口唾沫一個釘;可俗話又說:人嘴兩張皮,咋說咋有理!
15、俗話說:知識要有產權;俗話又說:不分享心裡不安!
16、俗話說:亡羊補牢,未為遲也;可俗話又說:亡羊補牢,為時已晚!
17、俗話說:瘦死的駱駝比馬大;可俗話又說:拔了毛的鳳凰不如雞!
18、俗話說:寧可玉碎,不能瓦全;可俗話又說:留得青山在,不怕沒柴燒!  
19、俗話說:人不可貌相,海水不可斗量;可俗話又說:人靠衣裳馬靠鞍!  
20、俗話說:浪子回頭金不換;可俗話又說:狗改不了吃屎!

21、俗話說:苦海無邊,回頭是岸;可俗話又說:開弓沒有回頭箭!
22、俗話說:退一步海闊天空;可俗話又說:狹路相逢勇者勝!  
23、俗話說:三百六十行,行行出狀元;可俗話又說:萬般皆下品,唯有讀書高!
24、俗話說:書到用時方恨少;可俗話又說:百無一用是書生!  
25、俗話說:金錢不是萬能的;可俗話又說:有錢能使鬼推磨!  
26、俗話說:天無絕人之路;可俗話又說:天網恢恢,疏而不漏!
27、俗話說:出淤泥而不染;可俗話又說:近朱者赤,近墨者黑!  
28、俗話說:捉賊捉贓,捉姦捉雙;可俗話又說:欲加之罪,何患無辭!  
29、俗話說:貧賤不能移!可俗話又說:人貧志短,馬瘦毛長!  
30、俗話說:青取之於藍而勝於藍;可俗話又說:姜還是老的辣!

31、俗話說:後生可畏;可俗話又說:嘴上無毛、辦事不牢!
32、俗話說:有緣千里來相會;可俗話又說:不是冤家不聚頭!
33、俗話說:在天願作比翼鳥,在地願為連理枝;可俗話又說:夫妻本是同林鳥,大難來時各自飛!
34、俗話說:得饒人處且饒人;可俗話又說:縱虎歸山,後患無窮!
35、俗話說:善有善報,惡有惡報;話又說:人善被人欺,馬善被人騎!
36、俗話說:一分耕耘、一分收穫;可俗話又說:人無橫財不富、馬無夜草不肥!
37、俗話說:小心駛得萬年船;可俗話又說:撐死膽大的,餓死膽小的!
38、俗話說:量小非君子;可俗話又說:無毒不丈夫!
39、俗話說:一寸光陰一寸金;可俗話又說:寸金難買寸光陰!  
40、俗話說:日久見人心;可俗話又說:人心隔肚皮!

41、俗話說:光陰似箭;可俗話又說:度日如年!
42、俗話說:己所不欲,勿施於人;可俗話又說:順我者昌,逆我者亡!
43、俗話說:邪不壓正;可俗話又說:道高一尺,魔高一丈!
44、俗話說:小不忍則亂大謀;可俗話又說:不蒸饅頭蒸(爭)口氣!
45、俗話說:人人為我,我為人人;可俗話又說:人不為己,天誅地滅!
46、俗話說:不怕人不敬,就怕己不正;可俗話又說:眾口爍金,積毀銷骨!  
47、俗話說:三個臭皮匠,勝過諸葛亮;可俗話又說:一個和尚挑水喝,兩個和尚抬水喝,三個和尚沒水喝!
48、俗話說:不入虎穴,焉得虎子;可俗話又說:老虎屁股摸不得!  
49、俗話說:百事孝為先;可俗話又說:忠孝不能兩全!
50、俗話說:人無遠慮,必有近憂;可俗話又說:今朝有酒今朝醉! 
 
51、俗話說:家事國事天下事,事事關心;可俗話又說:老婆孩子熱炕頭!
52、俗話說:人定勝天;可俗話又說:天意難違!
53、俗話說:愚公移山;可俗話又說:胳膊擰不過大腿!
54、俗話說:哪裡跌倒哪裡爬起;可俗話又說:一失足成千古恨!
55、俗話說:路不平有人鏟,事不平有人管;可俗話又說:自家掃取門前雪,莫管他人屋上霜!  
56、俗話說:滴水之恩當湧泉相報!可俗話又說:過河拆橋、卸磨殺驢、兔死狗烹、鳥盡弓藏!
57、俗話說:雙喜臨門;可俗話又說:福無雙進,禍不單行!  
58、俗話說:人挪活,樹挪死;可俗話又說:滾石不生苔,轉業不生財!
59、俗話說:嫁雞隨雞,嫁狗隨狗;可俗話又說:男怕選錯行,女怕嫁錯郎!
60、俗話說:明人不做暗事;可俗話又說:兵不厭詐!

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#43

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Thu May 01, 2014 3:00 pm
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts



陈凯转载/象形文字害苦了中国人
The Defect of Chinese Language


博主:长将  发表时间:2010-12-24 09:11:24

文化现象和文明是由人所创造的,文化创造者的行为结果,这个行为结果是群体中每一个个体所付出行为的总和,个人行为在大部份的情况下都是思维操作后的表现。 思维操作离不开思维工具,人类的主体思维工具为 “语言”和 “文字”,而使用了存有差别性的思维工具,则会导致在思维操作上形成不同的定势或倾向, 从而造成不一样的 “思维模式”。 作为思维工具, 语言和文字两者间也存在着因果关系,也就是语言的特点决定了表记这种语言的文字的形态。从不同的语言产生了各种的文字,以语言和文字作为人类的思维工具来操作思维过程,然后思维操作的结果被付诸行为,行为成为了思维结论的输出结果。而个体行为之总和就导致了我们所见的宏观的文化现象。语言是形成思维模式的第一因, 而思维模式则是造成文化现象的最根本因素,在这里并不是一概排除掉地理因素和历史偶然性对文明和文化现象的影响作用,不过这些因素只能位于语言和思维模式这些关键成因之后,地理因素只有在同一思维模式的圈子中起作用而造成同一圈子内各聚落群体的差异性,中国和西欧人在文化上的差异,思维模式则是造成这种现象的最根本原因,相比之下,地理因素可以忽略不计。

科学指的是思想,包括理论体系,逻辑系统和方法论,而技术指的是理论的输出部份,是行动部份与其结果,这是有形的实体和可感知的,理论与思想部份属于思维操作,较难作出比较,若要比较,也只能比较根据两者的观点在转化为行动后所带来的成果。例如甲宗教与乙宗教,就其纯理论来看,实在比较不出它们的好坏, 但是我们还是可以比较一下,以这两种宗教作生活指导的信徒在行为上的差异, 如果甲宗教信徒生活态度普遍积极活跃,但乙信教则生活消极,我们从此可以认为甲宗教要比乙宗教更值得推广。 在技术方面同理,不论是什么理论体系下的技术都可以通过其输出结果的合理性和实用性作出比较,例如对中医和西医甚至是巫医这些技术,我们都可以通过对治病的疗效来比较出高下,假如对某一种病,只有巫医才能治好的,我们就不得不承认巫医技术在这个疾病上要比中医和西医都更胜一筹。

以输出结果作为比较原则,中国与西方的 “科学技术”是可以进行比较的, 哪怕她们的理论和方法完全迴异。为了全面而彻底的解答 有关中国与西方在这方面的差异性,我们还需要深入认知东西方在科学技术中的理论系统和逻辑体系,中国和西方在科学技术发展上所走之路迴异,虽然如上所述以功效性可以对两者作客观比较,但在背后的发展理论,思想和逻辑却是完全不一样的,由此可以解释到中西方在技术水平上存在的差异性。 这种先进与落后的差异性是由道路的迴异性所造成的,那么这种迴异性是如何形成的,这就成为了另一个问题,还有为甚么中西方的发展不会合流,从而泯灭掉其中的迴异性,而事实就是因为不可泯灭才可能在这方面渐行渐远。

科学技术的发展属于文明和文化现象的一部份,它们都是思维模式的产物之一, 这就是说,中国和西方在思维模式上的分歧是造成两者在科技发展上走上迴异之路的原因。 中国的思维模式是“象化思维”模式,而西方的则称之为“量化思维”模式。 象化思维模式是可视化的思维模式,量化思维就是听觉式的思维模式。形成思维模式的第一因在语言文字,再准确来说,就是语言。中国人使用的语言—汉语属于“孤立语”,孤立语以单个音节(字节)指示概念,而且这个音节和所指示的概念不会因它们在句子中处于不同位置而改变,这就是汉语的孤立性。 而西方(西欧)语言为“印欧屈折语”, 屈折语中的词语由音素组合,而且音素之间的分界不明显,音素组合成的概念会因位置和语法意义的改变而变化。

世界上各种语言在最初期都经历过 “象形文字”的阶段,而只有孤立式的汉语最后发展成为今天的会意方块字,对于汉语的孤立性而言,音节(字音)是固定不变的,一旦以某一图形(方块字)作指示后,这个图形在任何情况下, 它的书写外形就不存在任何变动的必要。所以只有孤立语才能发展成为表意文字, 因为孤立语单词的读音是单音节的,而且发音不会随语法而变化,所以通过一个汉字来表记就可以。语言的特殊性直接决定了表记该种语言的文字的形态, 在这前后者间存在着因果关系。

古希腊被公认为西方文化思想的发祥地,古希腊人在为自己的语言创立这一套文字时,首先要认知自己的语言,在认识语言的过程中发现到,语言中的语音可以被分割到最小的单位,这就是音素,包括有元音和辅音,语言中的音节就是由这些不变的元音和辅音组合而成,这些元音和辅音的数量是有限的,只要分别以字母作表记, 就可以通过字母的组合表记出所有变化的语言,完全表音的希腊字母系统就是这样诞生了。在这里存在着一个 “定义性”模式的引入,也就是字母是通过定义过程来指示相对应的音素。在定义之前,字母的字形和音素不需要存在任何的关联性,因此也可以通过其它字母来指示音素,或把字母指向其它的非音素内容作重新定义。在这个认知过程中还涉及到“演释”的模式, 就是只有当单词中所有的字母都被确认后,这个单词的概念才可以被指示出来,一个字母的不明确可以令单词指向了其它的语意,这正如“三段论”所要求的,只有前两个条件都满足后,结论才可以成立。在这套完全表音字母系统里也涉及到一个 “确定性”的问题, 就是音素的确是不可再分的,只要用大脑来细细玩味其中的发音即可,我们不可能再把元音与辅音再作分割, 从大脑的经验可以肯定音素的不可分割性, 这就是对这种性质的“确定性”。

把语言分割成音素,再以字母表音素来记录语言,从此对语言的研究就不再需要以口语语言为对象,因为文字已经可以完全反映语言,所以古希腊人就把文字视作研究语言的对象,语言本来是主体,但是现在可以把对主体的认知转移到对客体身上,这就是“主客体分离”的认知模式。这种“主客体分离”的认知模式与“分解认知”模式是分不开的, 对主体的认知必须建立在对它作全面分解直至到最小而不可分解的元素上,而这些元素的不可再分解性要建立在以上所提的 “确定性”上, 然后再通过这些元素作重组并成为了对主体的“镜像”式体系,此为客体, 然后再通过客体作为媒体来认知客体。因此古希腊人发展的“量化思维”模式存在着“定义性”,“演绎性”,“确定性”,“分解认知”和 “主客体分离”这五个关键因素。

对语言的认知其实就是对听觉信息的认知,但对于人类来说,视觉接收的信息远比听觉为多,因此古希腊人就把这套从认知听觉信息总结而来的方式套用到视觉上。古希腊人把视觉图像进行分割, 直至最后只剩下点,直线和弧这三个最基本的元素。其实最基本的图像元素是点,点可以组成线与弧,但是抽象存在的点是不可见的,所以只有用直线与弧来表示点的存在,而直线与弧都是可见的,这就提供了确定性,而弧线就是圆的组成部份。古希腊人就是通过对几何学来认识外部的物质世界,所以他们十分重视几何学,古希腊的几何学不注重计量和数字,不像中国人那样,而是只研究空间的逻辑关系,他们只使用圆规和没有刻度的直尺来研究几何学。这种分割主体到最小单位,然后再组合客体,再对客体作认知的模式就是 “量化思维”模式的应用。

中国汉字有别于拼音文字,它是一种以字形表意的文字,这包括两个方面来表意,第一是通过辨认字形来确认汉字所指示的概念,这一点就有别于印欧屈折语的文字。辨认英语单词是需要在每一个字母都被确认的情况下,才可能把字母串合并指示出概念,这是“演绎”模式, 如果有一个字母不正确, 就有可能指向另一个概念,它们虽然只有一个字母也就是一个辅音之差,但是具有完全不一样的语意。 相反,汉字允许写得潦草一点,只要具备了基本字形就可以辨认,就像辨认视觉的图像一样,在光线不足,外形半遮和移动中的情况下, 我们都可以辨认物品,还有在认识了“杯” 这个对象后,我们也就知道眼前的这个像杯的对象也是杯,虽然这杯并不是刚才所见的杯。这是因为视觉辨认,或者称之为大脑处理视觉信息的方式, 就是对属性的辨认, 辨认对象外形的属性。因此两只茶杯只要具有相同的外形特征,另一只也会被认为是茶杯。 而且大脑在辨认过程中也不会关注具体的量化数字,例如茶杯的口径有多大, 杯耳弯曲的角度是多少等。 这等于我们见到熟人一样,一看就认出是他, 也看出他与上次见面时有点不同, 但是我们却很难说得出,我们是凭甚么量化的数据来认出这个朋友的, 造成这种情况是因为大脑对特征的处理都是在潜意识间进行的。

辨认汉字字形就好像辨认图像一样,这就是对图形的模拟。 在另一方面, 理解汉字的字义也需要模拟的操作, 通过汉字令大脑从图形的模拟提升到概念的层面。 例如,会意字“信”, 就是人言为信,“信”的概念带有“言语”的属性。 又如 “武”就是“止戈”, 表示 “武”与兵器和战争有关。指示字“上”, 以 “点”表示位于上方的信息。象形字如 “日”,说明太阳具有圆形的属性。形声字如 “江”, 说明了 “江”的概念与水有关,而且还带有“工”字的谐音, 这是一种谐意属性。 这种思维方式就是象化思维,一种以图像化概念为中心的思维方式,在图像化即“象化概念”中, 主要包含属性信息,象化思维就是一种处理属性的思维模式。人们使用汉字的过程就是训练这种处理属性的思维过程,长此下去就会形成象化思维模式并不继加固这种模式。大脑本身对视觉图像的处理以视觉机制来完成,因为汉字以图形示意,所以汉字令处理视觉信息的模式提升到处理概念的层面,概念图像化就形成了象化概念。除了象化概念外,象化思维将会以“包容递进性”和 “互属性”作为象化思维的逻辑机制,而“取象模拟”则是概念间的互动方式。

注:网络盗版摘录整理。

小菜刀于2010年12月23日星期四,晴天。

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#44

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Thu Oct 09, 2014 6:31 pm
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts

CK’s Answers to Jay’s Quetionnaire

10/9/2014 by Kai Chen www.kaichenblog.blogspot.com

Mr. Chen,

Below are the questions I hope you could answer for the article.

-Why do you oppose Confucius Institutes?

There are many reasons: First it is the Confucianism itself. It is a despotic doctrine every dynasty has to adhere to stabilize its reign over the population: Confucianism artificially divides the population by the individual's ascribed identity, not by the achieved identity. By such a doctrine, each dynasty does not have to worry or allow the population to question its legitimacy. It just demands the population to behave according to each individual's birth by social status, by gender, by age, by trade, etc. It is the ultimate "Rule by Law" in which the government is the ultimate arbiter to judge and control the individual, as against "Rule of Law" in which the government has to abide with the law to ensure God-given rights for its citizens. I have examined the Confucius Classrooms' material provided by the communist regime. I couldn't believe my eyes seeing so many brainwashing stories aimed at creating new zombies in the West and America.

Secondly, the communist dynasty establishes CIs to do only one thing - to muddle the world's conscience by making the world believe that there is no such thing as freedom, as free will. Each individual has already been predestined by his/hers ascribed identity from birth. By perverting the West with its tradition of rule of law, Beijing's rulers will feel safe seeing the world become just as dark, as confused, as morally muddle-headed as the Chinese population. In other words, if the entire world is polluted, no one will notice China's stink.

Thirdly, the communist regime can use Chinese language education by CIs as a pretense to identify potential communist regime's sympathizers, especially those with potential to hold positions in the US and Western governments. Also the regime can use CIs in US and Western universities and colleges to collect valuable economic, political, military, scientific information, making CIs as a legitimate/legal spy outposts.

-Do you think they pose a threat to academic freedom on campus? Do you think this is China's way of utilizing soft power?

Freedom means one is free to exercising his/her own natural right by God. Freedom does not mean one has the "rights" to restrict, interfere and control another person's thought. CIs precisely want to accomplish the latter. By restricting the information the students should seek, by distorting China's history (omitting subjects such as Mao's crimes against humanity - Great Leap Forward/Great Famine in which 45 million innocent people perished, the Cultural Revolution, Tiananmen Square massacre in 1989, persecution of dissidents such as Liu Xiaobo and Fa Lungong practitioners, the atrocities due to China's "One Child" policy, etc.., CIs function as a brainwashing machine to make soulless zombies. Anyone who questions the regime's legitimacy will be ruthlessly repressed and persecuted.

China's has no soft power, for the Chinese regime was established on Mao's principle of "power comes only from guns and violence". A criminal regime that has no legitimacy and moral foundation will have no such thing as "soft power" which implies respect of an individual's free will. If you don't comply with the communist dynasty's version of history, you will be punished. That is "hard power".

-A representative from Rep. Dana Rohrabacher said the institutes are part of a larger plan to change the image of China in the west, when students are forming their opinions on the world. Do you agree?

Not entirely. Using offense as defense is a traditional Chinese tactic learned from dynasties of wars and intrigues. China, to protect its own communist dynasty, is actively engaged in changing the world according to the Chinese/Confucian mindset of despotism and tyranny. If the West and America are perverted by the mind-warping Chinese propaganda machine - the CIs (and the CCs - Confucius Classrooms to pervert American younger students' mind, then China will be safe and the regime's power secured. If America remains free with a strong moral foundation, then China, and the tyrannies around the world for that matter, will be endangered and their days will be numbered.

China does not care about the image it poses around the world. China cares great deal about imposing its own despotic version of history and its tyrannical vision around the world. If you go to China, you will find that the population has no soul. Most people worship only power. They care nothing about right or wrong, good or evil, truth or falsehood. That is why Mao's image is still being worshipped and revered. Most people believe in China that to curb evil, you don't need good. You need only bigger evil.

-Other countries including France, Germany, and the UK have institutes on campuses and corporations also donate money to schools. Do you oppose these sorts of organizations as well?

Anything projected by the Chinese government which is criminal and evil in nature should be objected by all countries and peoples with conscience and soul. What has been worrying me since I came to America is seeing that Americans, evidenced by the election of Obama, gradually forget what this great nation was established for. When Ronald Reagan was the President, every time he went to USSR, he demanded to meet with the dissidents first. He believed in the meaning and the provident existence of America by God. He talked over the tyrants to the people. He was right. But nowadays, America is in mortal danger, precisely because no President since Reagan has ever talked to the oppressed people with America's founding principles. They'd rather talk with the governments that oppress their people. This tendency since Reagan has greatly weakened America's soft power around the world, and has subtly and effectively perverted not only the images of America, but the moral essence by which America has lived.

Today, Liu Xiaobo, the Nobel Peace Prize winner, still sits in the Chinese jail for wanting freedom for the Chinese. Yet no Presidents of America utter any words to praise him and his spirit, for fear of the Chinese regime and for conforming with that omnipresent "political correctness". Cultures are never equal. Religions are never equal, languages are never equal, political institutions are never equal..., for they are all man-made. America's culture, language and religious background is the most close to the universal human aspirations. Therefore, America must be obliged by a moral duty to spread freedom around the world. It is not only for all the countries' good. It is fundamentally for America's health, meaning and security.

-Confucius Institutes often claim they have no influence over academics, but can rather only be involved in extracurricular programs. Do you buy into this claim?

Of course not. First, all languages carry values by themselves. The Chinese language carries a great deal of moral confusion, anti-reason illogic and despotic hierarchy in itself. It should only be studied as an art form or as an ancient linguistic phenomenon, never as a communication tool. Please check books written by William Hannas on Chinese character-based syllabic language's defects.

Do you believe any treaty made with despots and tyrants will be carried out, as the one between Hitler and Stalin? If not, then don't ever believe a word made by the Chinese government.

-UChicago and PennState recently eliminated their institutes. Do you think this is a step in the right direction?

Absolutely. It is only a logical extension of common sense. If you make a deal with the devil, you will bear all the consequences of the deal. When people start to realize the evil and insidious nature of CIs, they will logically rethink about their position of China as a normal country. The truth is: China has never been a nation state, as so many in the West imagines of fantasized. China has, from the ancient time when it came into existence, always been a despotic dynasty. Today's China? A communist party-dynasty that is just like any other dynasty in Chinese history that observes no rules but only power, that observes no borders but subjects, that has never had any moral foundation to seek freedom and happiness for its citizens, but to impose despotic rules over its population and all the subjects around its neighborhood. If possible, the party dynasty will impose its perverted culture and atrocious rule over the world.

-Anything else you would like to add?

I think I have said enough for now. But if you have any question, you can always call me or email me. I have not edited my answers. I only hope you understand my English.

Thanks so much. I look forward to hearing your answers.

Best,
Jay Panandiker

Scroll up

#45

RE: 从“文字笼罐”到“文字狱” From Chinese Language to Despotism

in 陈凯论坛 Kai Chen Forum 不自由,毋宁死! Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death! Thu Oct 09, 2014 6:32 pm
by fountainheadkc • 1.370 Posts

CK’s Answers to Jay’s Quetionnaire

10/9/2014 by Kai Chen www.kaichenblog.blogspot.com

Mr. Chen,

Below are the questions I hope you could answer for the article.

-Why do you oppose Confucius Institutes?

There are many reasons: First it is the Confucianism itself. It is a despotic doctrine every dynasty has to adhere to stabilize its reign over the population: Confucianism artificially divides the population by the individual's ascribed identity, not by the achieved identity. By such a doctrine, each dynasty does not have to worry or allow the population to question its legitimacy. It just demands the population to behave according to each individual's birth by social status, by gender, by age, by trade, etc. It is the ultimate "Rule by Law" in which the government is the ultimate arbiter to judge and control the individual, as against "Rule of Law" in which the government has to abide with the law to ensure God-given rights for its citizens. I have examined the Confucius Classrooms' material provided by the communist regime. I couldn't believe my eyes seeing so many brainwashing stories aimed at creating new zombies in the West and America.

Secondly, the communist dynasty establishes CIs to do only one thing - to muddle the world's conscience by making the world believe that there is no such thing as freedom, as free will. Each individual has already been predestined by his/hers ascribed identity from birth. By perverting the West with its tradition of rule of law, Beijing's rulers will feel safe seeing the world become just as dark, as confused, as morally muddle-headed as the Chinese population. In other words, if the entire world is polluted, no one will notice China's stink.

Thirdly, the communist regime can use Chinese language education by CIs as a pretense to identify potential communist regime's sympathizers, especially those with potential to hold positions in the US and Western governments. Also the regime can use CIs in US and Western universities and colleges to collect valuable economic, political, military, scientific information, making CIs as a legitimate/legal spy outposts.

-Do you think they pose a threat to academic freedom on campus? Do you think this is China's way of utilizing soft power?

Freedom means one is free to exercising his/her own natural right by God. Freedom does not mean one has the "rights" to restrict, interfere and control another person's thought. CIs precisely want to accomplish the latter. By restricting the information the students should seek, by distorting China's history (omitting subjects such as Mao's crimes against humanity - Great Leap Forward/Great Famine in which 45 million innocent people perished, the Cultural Revolution, Tiananmen Square massacre in 1989, persecution of dissidents such as Liu Xiaobo and Fa Lungong practitioners, the atrocities due to China's "One Child" policy, etc.., CIs function as a brainwashing machine to make soulless zombies. Anyone who questions the regime's legitimacy will be ruthlessly repressed and persecuted.

China's has no soft power, for the Chinese regime was established on Mao's principle of "power comes only from guns and violence". A criminal regime that has no legitimacy and moral foundation will have no such thing as "soft power" which implies respect of an individual's free will. If you don't comply with the communist dynasty's version of history, you will be punished. That is "hard power".

-A representative from Rep. Dana Rohrabacher said the institutes are part of a larger plan to change the image of China in the west, when students are forming their opinions on the world. Do you agree?

Not entirely. Using offense as defense is a traditional Chinese tactic learned from dynasties of wars and intrigues. China, to protect its own communist dynasty, is actively engaged in changing the world according to the Chinese/Confucian mindset of despotism and tyranny. If the West and America are perverted by the mind-warping Chinese propaganda machine - the CIs (and the CCs - Confucius Classrooms to pervert American younger students' mind, then China will be safe and the regime's power secured. If America remains free with a strong moral foundation, then China, and the tyrannies around the world for that matter, will be endangered and their days will be numbered.

China does not care about the image it poses around the world. China cares great deal about imposing its own despotic version of history and its tyrannical vision around the world. If you go to China, you will find that the population has no soul. Most people worship only power. They care nothing about right or wrong, good or evil, truth or falsehood. That is why Mao's image is still being worshipped and revered. Most people believe in China that to curb evil, you don't need good. You need only bigger evil.

-Other countries including France, Germany, and the UK have institutes on campuses and corporations also donate money to schools. Do you oppose these sorts of organizations as well?

Anything projected by the Chinese government which is criminal and evil in nature should be objected by all countries and peoples with conscience and soul. What has been worrying me since I came to America is seeing that Americans, evidenced by the election of Obama, gradually forget what this great nation was established for. When Ronald Reagan was the President, every time he went to USSR, he demanded to meet with the dissidents first. He believed in the meaning and the provident existence of America by God. He talked over the tyrants to the people. He was right. But nowadays, America is in mortal danger, precisely because no President since Reagan has ever talked to the oppressed people with America's founding principles. They'd rather talk with the governments that oppress their people. This tendency since Reagan has greatly weakened America's soft power around the world, and has subtly and effectively perverted not only the images of America, but the moral essence by which America has lived.

Today, Liu Xiaobo, the Nobel Peace Prize winner, still sits in the Chinese jail for wanting freedom for the Chinese. Yet no Presidents of America utter any words to praise him and his spirit, for fear of the Chinese regime and for conforming with that omnipresent "political correctness". Cultures are never equal. Religions are never equal, languages are never equal, political institutions are never equal..., for they are all man-made. America's culture, language and religious background is the most close to the universal human aspirations. Therefore, America must be obliged by a moral duty to spread freedom around the world. It is not only for all the countries' good. It is fundamentally for America's health, meaning and security.

-Confucius Institutes often claim they have no influence over academics, but can rather only be involved in extracurricular programs. Do you buy into this claim?

Of course not. First, all languages carry values by themselves. The Chinese language carries a great deal of moral confusion, anti-reason illogic and despotic hierarchy in itself. It should only be studied as an art form or as an ancient linguistic phenomenon, never as a communication tool. Please check books written by William Hannas on Chinese character-based syllabic language's defects.

Do you believe any treaty made with despots and tyrants will be carried out, as the one between Hitler and Stalin? If not, then don't ever believe a word made by the Chinese government.

-UChicago and PennState recently eliminated their institutes. Do you think this is a step in the right direction?

Absolutely. It is only a logical extension of common sense. If you make a deal with the devil, you will bear all the consequences of the deal. When people start to realize the evil and insidious nature of CIs, they will logically rethink about their position of China as a normal country. The truth is: China has never been a nation state, as so many in the West imagines of fantasized. China has, from the ancient time when it came into existence, always been a despotic dynasty. Today's China? A communist party-dynasty that is just like any other dynasty in Chinese history that observes no rules but only power, that observes no borders but subjects, that has never had any moral foundation to seek freedom and happiness for its citizens, but to impose despotic rules over its population and all the subjects around its neighborhood. If possible, the party dynasty will impose its perverted culture and atrocious rule over the world.

-Anything else you would like to add?

I think I have said enough for now. But if you have any question, you can always call me or email me. I have not edited my answers. I only hope you understand my English.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thanks so much. I look forward to hearing your answers.

Best,
Jay Panandiker

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.youpai.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=7953

Jay: I now forward this article I wrote about Hong Kong's protests. Hope this will supplement my answers to your questions.

I am worried about America, seeing so many in America losing the founding principles, divine to mankind, of America. I, as an immigrant from a despotic country, want to wake up America to this mortal danger - a numbness and a moral confusion permeated in today's society. I will do my best, my moral duty, to alert America of this danger: As long as America is free with its founding principles intact, no despots and tyrants will feel safe, no matter how powerful they are. But if America is perverted with its founding principles subverted for no apparent reason, then the world's despots and tyrants will feel safe. And the world may be thrust into another dark ages that may last decades, even centuries.

We are at a crossroad and America must wake up to redeem herself from her recent confusion and blunder by negligence and willful dereliction of her duty by God to the world. Without America moral leadership, mankind is in deep moral confusion without direction. Recent development around the world has demonstrated my point.

If you want me to add something to my answers to your questions, above are the words from my heart.

Best and send me a link if your article is published. Kai Chen


Last edited Thu Oct 09, 2014 7:18 pm | Scroll up

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